Table 3

Applications of PCR in ophthalmic infectious diseases

Causative agentOcular siteClinical diagnosisReference
Viruses:
 AdenovirusConjunctivaKC 67–72
 HSVTear filmkeratitis 73, 74
Cornea or conjunctiva keratitis or KC 21, 75, 76
Aqueousuveitis 77, 78
 EV70ConjunctivaAHC 79
 VZVAqueous and vitreous retinal necrosis 78
Vitreousophthalmic zoster 80
 EBVAqueous and vitreous retinal necrosis 81
VitreousVogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome 82
 CMVAqueous, subretinal, and vitreous chorioretinal inflammatory disease or retinitis 80, 83, 84
 HPVConjunctivaconjunctival carcinoma 85
Bacteria:
C trachomatis Conjunctivachlamydial conjunctivitis 56,86–95
  Mycobacteria Vitreous and uveal tissueendophthalmitis 96
Parasites:
Toxoplasma gondii Aqueous and vitreous retinochoroiditis 78
Ocular tissue sectionsocular toxoplasmosis 97
  • KC=keratoconjunctivitis; EV70=enterovirus 70; AHC=acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis; VZV=varicella zoster virus; EBV=Epstein–Barr virus; CMV=cytomegalovirus; HPV=human papillomavirus.