Table 1

Calculated incidence of ocular side effects of topical β blockers

β Blocker Cases Vials sold during study period Incidence (cases/1000 patient years) (95% confidence interval)
bufenolol122895.24  (0, 15.51)
metipranolol5142884.20 (0.52, 7.88)
carteolol3136202.64 (0, 5.63)
levobunolol5296112.03 (0.25, 3.81)
timolol161514341.27 (0.65, 1.89)
betaxolol4584780.82 (0.02, 1.60)
total342697201.51 (1.00, 2.02)
  • Cases were defined as any patient whose topical β blocker therapy was altered because of an ocular reaction open to objectification by the ophthalmologist.

  • Sales figures of topical β blockers were used to estimate the number of patients using topical β blockers. It was assumed that one patient uses one vial of β blocker in 1 month.

  • No significant differences were found between β blockers.