Table 3

Inducible models for retinal degenerations

Animal (strain) Cell layer Degeneration time course References
Induction by light
 white fluorescent light, up to 2 hoursrat (ZUR-SIV)ONL, RPEimmediately–24 hours after exposure 62, 87
 white fluorescent light, up to 2 hoursmouse (C57BL/6 × 129Sv)ONLimmediately–24 hours after exposure 63, 86
 fluorescent light, 1 week, 2000 luxrat (Sprague-Dawley)ONLfull degeneration at end of exposure 88
 intermittent green fluorescent lightalbino rat (Lewis)ONL, RPEdepending on stimulus onset 92
 green fluorescent light, up to 24 hoursalbino rat (Lewis)ONL, RPEstarts at 6 hours after exposure 94
 intraocular fibre optic lightowl monkeyONL, RPE1 hour–4 weeks after exposure 95
Others
 prenatal intraperitoneal injection of MNUmouse (CD-1 albino)ONL, OPL, IPLtime and dose dependent 96
 intraperitoneal injection of MNUrat (Brown-Norway)ONLtime and dose dependent 97-99
 intraperitoneal injection of MNUmouse (C57BL6)ONLtime and dose dependent 100
 insertion of iron wire into vitreousrabbitONL24 hours–4 days after insertion 101
 implantation of iron particle into vitreousrat (Sprague-Dawley)ONL1–2 days after implantation 102
 intravitreal injection of l-ornithine hydrochloriderat (Brown-Norway)RPE, ONLimmediately–14 days after injection 103, 121
 murine coronavirusmouse (BALB/c)ONL, RPEimmediately–32 days after inoculation 122
 vitamin E deficient diet for 3 monthsrat (RCS-rdy+)ONL, RPEimmediately after diet 123
 intravitreal injection of LHPrabbit (New Zealand white)ONL, RPEfew hours–18 days after injection 124
 hypoxia, beginning on p15rat (Sprague-Dawley)ONL, INLinitial degeneration at p 21125