Table 1

Possible mechanisms for peripheral visual field defects after macular hole surgery

Indirect, mechanical trauma to the peripapillary region1 2 4-8 14
Direct, mechanical trauma to the optic disc1 8
Phototoxic effects from exposure to the intraocular fibreoptic illuminators2 12
Dehydration injury during air-fluid exchange10 13
Mechanical or toxic effects of the gas bubble2 3 7 12
Retinal or ciliary artery occlusion2 12 14
Glaucomatous damage from elevated postoperative pressure2 8 11