Table 2

Results of the examinations for MGD before and after IWCD treatment (mean (SD))

All MGD (n = 37)MGD with ATD (n = 17)MGD without ATD (n = 20)
Before treatmentAfter 2 weeks of treatmentp ValueBefore treatmentAfter 2 weeks of treatmentp ValueBefore treatmentAfter 2 weeks of treatmentp Value
IWCD = infrared warm compression device, MGD = non-inflamed meibomian gland dysfunction, ATD = aqueous tear deficiency dry eye, p value = p values for the significance of the difference between before treatment and after 2 weeks of treatment, NB = normal blinking, FB = forced blinking every 5 seconds, and MG = meibomian gland.
*Blink rate was measured at tear evaporation measurement with normal blinking.
MG obstruction score: grade 0, clear meibum easily expressed; grade 1, cloudy meibum expressed with mild pressure; grade 2, cloudy meibum expressed with more than moderate pressure; and grade 3, meibum cannot be expressed even with strong pressure. Meibography score: grade 0, no gland dropout; grade 1, gland dropout in less than half of the inferior tarsus; and grade 2, gland dropout in more than half of the inferior tarsus.4,11
Results are separately demonstrated on all 37 MGD cases, 17 MGD with ATD, and 20 MGD without ATD for each score or value. Subjective symptoms were checked on dry eye sensation, ocular fatigue, ocular pain, foreign body sensation, irritation, burning sensation, and itchiness. All these 7 symptoms were scored from 0 to 4 and summation of these scores was used as total subjective symptom score. Face score represents overall comfort.10,17–19 For example, the saddest face (scored 9) describes severe discomfort, and the happiest face (scored 1) represents no discomfort.
Total symptom scores (0-28)12.3 (5.9)8.4 (6.1)<0.000111.8 (5.4)8.1 (6.5)0.00112.8 (6.3)8.7 (5.8)<0.0001
Face scores (1-9)7.0 (1.7)5.3 (2.0)<0.00016.9 (1.7)4.9 (2.4)0.0037.1 (1.7)5.6 (1.6)0.0006
Tear evaporation rates (NB, 10−7 × g/s)18.6 (9.1)17.5 (9.5)0.316.3 (7.6)14.6 (7.6)0.420.3 (9.9)19.8 (10.4)0.5
Tear evaporation rates (FB, 10−7 × g/s)22.1 (11.9)16.2 (10.6)0.00218.3 (8.4)14.5 (7.7)0.0824.9 (13.5)17.5 (12.4)0.02
Blink rate * ( /min)24.0 (11.0)22.2 (16.2)0.1222.6 (13.7)21.6 (12.3)0.724.9 (9.0)22.6 (19.0)0.1
Fluorescein score (1–9)2.5 (2.5)1.7 (1.8)0.033.5 (2.9)2.4 (2.2)0.081.8 (1.9)1.1 (1.1)0.2
Rose bengal score (1–9)1.8 (2.5)1.1 (2.1)0.033.2 (3.0)2.1 (2.8)0.040.6 (1.0)0.4 (0.8)0.5
Break up time (seconds)3.5 (2.4)8.9 (3.5)<0.00014.1 (3.1)8.8 (3.6)0.00083.0 (1.7)9.0 (3.5)<0.0001
Schirmer test: wetting length (mm)9.5 (8.9)7.2 (5.6)0.33.2 (1.6)4.1 (3.2)0.414.8 (9.2)10.3 (5.9)0.07
MG obstruction score (0-3)2.3 (0.7)0.8 (0.8)<0.00012.1 (0.7)0.8 (0.8)< 0.00012.5 (0.6)0.9 (0.7)<0.0001
Meibography score (0-2)1.0 (0.8)1.0 (0.8)NA1.2 (0.8)1.2 (0.8)NA0.8 (0.8)0.8 (0.8)NA