Table 5

Full model from logistic regression on diabetic retinopathy (age, sex, race, and duration forced into the model and all continuous measures are modeled continuously)

Variables in the modelOdds ratio (95% confidence interval)p Value
*Natural log transformation used in modelling due to skewed distribution; †odds ratio for comparison against no cardiovascular disease. Subclinical disease defined as major electrocardiogram abnormalities, echocardiogram wall motion abnormality or low ejection fraction, increased carotid or internal carotid artery wall thickness (>80th percentile) or stenosis of >25%, a decreased ankle-brachial blood pressure (≤0.9 mm Hg) and positive responses to the Rose questionnaire for angina or intermittent claudication.
Age (per year)0.96 (0.87 to 1.06)0.41
Sex (men v women)0.42 (0.19 to 0.95)0.04
Race (black v non-black)2.26 (1.01 to 5.05)0.05
Plasma glucose*1.98 (0.55 to 7.70)0.29
Gross proteinuria (present v absent)4.76 (1.53 to 14.86)<0.01
Plasma LDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dl)1.12 (1.02 to 1.23)0.02
Duration of diabetes (per 5 years)1.42 (1.18 to 1.70)<0.001
Cardiovascular disease†
    Subclinical only1.49 (0.51 to 4.31)0.463
    Prevalent coronary heart disease or stroke3.23 (1.09 to 9.56)0.034