Table 4

Independent risk factors for myopia—multivariate analysis

CategoriesPrevalenceOR*95% CIAdjusted OR†95% CIp Vaue
*Crude odds ratio.
†Odds ratio simultaneously adjusted for all other significant independent risk factors: sex, age group, ethnic group, father’s education, and siblings wearing spectacles.
Ethnic group
    Non-Africans13.43.122.07 to 4.702.441.52 to 3.91<0.001
Age group (years)
    17 or over4.7
    14– to 1.620.910.61 to 1.340.627
    11–1314.13.332.01 to 5.501.781.00 to 3.150.049
    Female7.21.631.16 to 2.301.501.06 to 2.140.024
Father’s education
    Up to and including secondary school only4.7
    Post-secondary (after form 4 or after form 6)7.41.611.12 to 2.311.631.20 to 2.400.010
    Unknown or father dead4.20.890.50 to 1.590.940.52 to 1.680.823
Sibling wears spectacles
    Sibling(s) without spectacles4.8
    Sibling(s) with spectacles8.11.761.22 to 2.541.481.02 to 2.160.041
    Only child16.03.821.28 to 11.361.930.60 to 6.150.267