Table 3

Age and sex adjusted associations* of risk factors and specific cataract types (nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract), any cataract, and cataract surgery in Chinese Singaporeans

Nuclear cataractCortical cataractPSC cataractAny cataractCataract surgery
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
*All OR are adjusted for age and sex, except age, adjusted for sex, and sex, adjusted for age only.
†p Value based on test of trend.
‡Hypertension: defined as history of hypertension or systolic blood pressure of =160 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure of =95 mm Hg
PSC = posterior subcapsular cataract.
Occupation: clerks: clerks or sales people, production: production or machine operators, labourers: labourers or agricultural workers, managers: mangers or professionals.
Age (per 10 years)5.6 (4.6 to 6.8)<0.0013.4 (2.9 to 3.9)<0.0012.9 (2.3 to 3.6)<0.0016.1 (5.0 to 7.5)<0.0013.9 (2.9 to 5.0)<0.001
Sex
    Men v women0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)0.421.0 (0.8 to 1.4)0.791.0 (0.7 to 1.5)0.900.8 (0.6 to 1.1)0.130.8 (0.6 to 1.2)0.33
Education
    None1.9 (0.8 to 4.5)0.171.1 (0.6 to 2.3)0.741.3 (0.4 to 3.6)0.671.1 (0.5 to 2.3)0.822.2 (0.6 to 8.0)0.23
    Primary1.8 (0.8 to 4.2)0.160.9 (0.5 to 1.8)0.121.5 (0.5 to 4.1)0.451.0 (0.5 to 2.1)0.932.0 (0.6 to 7.0)0.28
    Secondary1.5 (0.6 to 3.5)0.400.7 (0.4 to 1.4)0.340.6 (0.2 to 1.9)0.421.0 (0.5 to 2.0)0.941.6 (0.4 to 6.0)0.52
    Tertiary11111
p=0.14†p=0.15†p=0.15†p=0.68†p=0.17†
Occupation
    Production2.7 (1.4 to 5.2)0.0041.7 (1.0 to 3.0)0.061.4 (0.6 to 3.3)0.412.1 (1.1 to 4.0)0.021.7 (0.8 to 3.7)0.21
    Labourers2.2 (1.1 to 4.3)0.031.6 (0.9 to 2.9)0.131.0 (0.4 to 2.5)0.971.6 (0.8 to 3.1)0.151.1 (0.5 to 2.6)0.83
    Clerks2.3 (1.2 to 4.4)0.011.0 (0.6 to 1.8)0.941.5 (0.7 to 3.5)0.311.4 (0.7 to 2.6)0.310.9 (0.4 to 2.1)0.79
    Home makers2.1 (1.0 to 4.4)0.041.1 (0.6 to 2.0)0.811.4 (0.6 to 3.5)0.461.4 (0.7 to 2.7)0.350.9 (0.4 to 2.2)0.86
    Others1.3 (0.5 to 3.0)0.611.0 (0.5 to 2.1)0.971.6 (0.5 to 4.6)0.401.1 (0.5 to 2.6)0.742.0 (0.7 to 5.2)0.19
    Managers11111
Housing type
    1–2 rooms1.5 (0.9 to 2.5)0.080.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.611.9 (1.0 to 3.7)0.051.1 (0.7 to 1.9)0.601.4 (0.7 to 2.5)0.31
    3 rooms1.2 to (0.8 to 1.8)0.331.2 (0.9 to 1.7)0.282.2 (1.3 to 3.9)0.0041.2 (0.8 to 1.8)0.291.4 (0.9 to 2.4)0.17
    4–5 rooms and private housing11111
p=0.08†p=0.73†p=0.05†p=0.52†p=0.31†
Individual income, per month
    <S$10001.4 (0.4 to 4.4)0.581.5 (0.6 to 4.0)0.402.3 (0.3 to 17)0.431.6 (0.6 to 4.1)0.310.6 (0.3 to 1.5)0.27
    S$1000–20001.5 (0.5 to 4.9)0.501.6 (0.6 to 4.3)0.371.4 (0.2 to 12)0.781.6 (0.6 to 4.1)0.351.0
    S$2000–30000.8 (0.2 to 4.3)0.830.9 (0.2 to 3.4)0.882.4 (0.2 to 30)0.501.4 (0.4 to 4.4)0.57
    >S$30001111
p=0.54†p=0.32†p=0.30†p=0.35†
Household income, per month
    <S$20001.4 (0.8 to 2.6)0.231.1 (0.6 to 1.8)0.773.1 (0.9 to 10)0.071.3 (0.9 to 2.2)0.302.2 (0.7 to 7.3)0.20
    S$2000–40001.4 (0.7 to 2.7)0.361.2 (0.6 to 2.1)0.633.0 (0.8 to 11)0.091.3 (0.7 to 2.4)0.352.2 (0.6 to 8.1)0.24
    >S$400011111
p=0.28†p=0.93†p=0.11†p=0.39†p=0.29†
History of diabetes
    Yes, oral/insulin2.8 (0.8 to 9.4)0.093.0 (1.6 to 5.4)<0.0012.1 (1.1 to 4.0)0.021.9 (0.9 to 4.1)0.082.3 (1.3 to 4.1)0.006
    Yes, diet only1.0 (0.5 to 1.9)0.961.6 (0.6 to 4.3)0.321.1 (0.3 to 4.2)0.861.8 (0.6 to 5.4)0.332.2 (0.8 to 6.1)0.13
    No11111
p=0.68†p<0.001†p=0.03†p=0.05†p=0.008†
History of “heart attack”
    Yes v no1.1 (0.6 to 2.1)0.830.7 (0.4 to 1.3)0.320.7 (0.3 to 1.5)0.350.8 (0.4 to 1.5)0.441.1 (0.6 to 2.1)0.69
History of stroke
    Yes v no1.1 (0.5 to 2.6)0.801.6 (0.7 to 3.5)0.270.5 (0.2 to 1.5)0.221.1 (0.4 to 2.9)0.911.0 (0.4 to 2.4)0.97
Hypertension‡
    Yes v no0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)0.131.0 (0.8 to 1.4)0.850.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.670.9 (0.6 to 1.3)0.520.9 (0.6 to 1.3)0.47
Current smoking
    Yes, >10/day2.3 (1.4 to 3.7)0.0011.5 (0.9 to 2.3)0.081.3 (0.7 to 2.3)0.421.8 (1.1 to 3.0)0.020.7 (0.3 to 1.4)0.30
    Yes, ⩽10/day1.5 (0.6 to 3.7)0.360.9 (0.4 to 1.9)0.710.6 (0.2 to 1.7)0.331.6 (0.6 to 4.4)0.361.6 (0.8 to 3.4)0.20
    No11111
p=0.001†p=0.11†p=0.60†p=0.02†p=0.55†
Height (metres)
    1st quintile2.0 (0.9 to 4.1)0.081.3 (0.7 to 2.5)0.480.8 (0.3 to 1.9)0.541.3 (0.6 to 2.8)0.441.4 (0.5 to 3.7)0.50
    2nd quintile1.5 (0.7 to 2.9)0.291.4 (0.7 to 2.5)0.320.7 (0.3 to 2.3)0.381.0 (0.5 to 2.0)0.971.6 (0.6 to 4.0)0.33
    3rd quintile1.4 (0.7 to 2.6)0.331.4 (0.8 to 2.5)0.211.1 (0.5 to 2.3)0.861.1 (0.6 to 2.1)0.791.5 (0.6 to 3.5)0.37
    4th quintile1.6 (0.9 to 2.8)0.091.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.990.6 (0.3 to 1.3)0.211.3 (0.8 to 2.3)0.331.8 (0.9 to 4.0)0.12
    5th quintile11111
p=0.13†p=0.45†p=0.54†p=0.63†p=0.71†
Body mass index
    1st quintile1.7 (1.0 to 2.9)0.051.7 (1.1 to 2.8)0.030.8 (0.4 to 1.5)0.472.2 (1.2 to 3.8)0.0061.6 (0.8 to 3.4)0.18
    2nd quintile1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)0.351.3 (0.8 to 2.2)0.251.0 (0.5 to 1.9)0.911.3 (0.8 to 2.3)0.281.7 (0.8 to 3.5)0.16
    3rd quintile1.2 (0.7 to 1.9)0.591.4 (0.9 to 2.3)0.141.2 (0.6 to 2.2)0.511.3 (0.8 to 2.3)0.281.2 (0.6 to 2.5)0.63
    4th quintile0.9 (0.5 to 1.5)0.721.4 (0.8 to 2.2)0.200.9 (0.5 to 1.8)0.841.3 (0.8 to 2.2)0.291.0 (0.4 to 2.2)0.97
    5th quintile11111
p=0.03†p=0.05†p=0.56†p=0.01†p=0.06†