Table 5

Selected epidemiological studies on socio economic and medical risk factors of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataracts in Asia

Associations with any cataract, specific cataract types and cataract surgery*
Location, yearPopulationStudy typeAny/mxed cataractNuclear cataractCortical cataractPSC cataractCataract surgery
*Associations with age, sex, race, ocular diseases (eg, myopia), nutritional supplements (eg, vitamin use) or drug use (eg, aspirin) not included.
†SES = socioeconomic status, includes a variety of measures, such as education, type of residence (eg, rural) and income.
‡Outdoor lifestyle: intended to be an indirect measure of ultraviolet light. The New Delhi study (36) included outdoor occupation, time spent living at altitude, and estimated exposure to direct sunlight.
BMI = body mass index, PSC = posterior subcapsular.
Punjab, India, 1982351269Population based surveyLower weight
Age: 30–80+Lower weight
Lower SES†
New Delhi, India, 1989361990Case-control studyLower BMILower BMI
Age 37–62Lower SES†Higher systolic BPLower SES†Lower SES†
Higher systolic BPOutdoor lifestyle‡Outdoor lifestyle‡Outdoor lifestyle‡
Outdoor lifestyle‡
Taipei, Taiwan392038Population based surveyDiabetesSmokingHigher systolic BPDiabetes
Age: 50–93Higher diastolic BPHigher diastolic BP
Singapore1206 ChinesePopulation based surveyDiabetesDiabetes,Diabetes,Diabetes
Age: 40–81Lower BMILower SES†Lower BMI,Lower SES†
Lower SES†SmokingLower SES†