Table 2

 The Keith, Wagener, and Barker117 hypertensive retinopathy classification (grade I–IV), based on the level of severity of the retinal findings

Grade I (mild hypertension)Mild generalised retinal arteriolar narrowing or sclerosisNo symptoms
Grade II (more marked hypertension retinopathy)Definite focal narrowing and arteriovenous crossings. Moderate to marked sclerosis of the retinal arterioles. Exaggerated arterial light reflexAsymptomatic
Grade III (mild angiospastic retinopathy)Retinal haemorrhages, exudates and cotton wool spots. Sclerosis and spastic lesions of retinal arteriolesSymptomatic
Grade IVSevere grade III and papilloedemaReduced survival