Table 3

 Association between smoking and AMD causing visual impairment

Risk factorControlsCasesOdds ratio adjusted for age and sexOdds ratio adjusted for confounders
OR95% CIWald testOR95% CIWald test
Data from 4364 controls and 516 cases in the 49 practices taking part in the vision add-on study in the MRC Trial of the Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community. Confidence intervals adjusted for clustered design of the study. Confounders: age (75–79, 80–84, 85–89, and 90+), sex, housing (owner, non-owner, sheltered), body mass index (quintiles), alcohol consumption (never, ex, current below median, current above median), cardiovascular disease (reported heart attack or stroke or angina as assessed by Rose questionnaire), hypertension (reported high blood pressure or current systolic>160 mm Hg or current diastolic >90 mm Hg).
Never smoked169823311
Ex-smoker22812201.130.88 to 1.440.3821.130.86 to 1.470.376
Current smoker378602.331.61 to 3.37<0.0012.151.42 to 3.260.001
Never smoked169823311
<20 pack years12861431.180.90 to 1.550.2141.170.86 to 1.580.303
20–<40 pack years619571.310.90 to 1.920.1601.370.93 to 2.010.108
40 + pack years627591.410.96 to 2.050.0751.240.80 to 1.930.336
Never smoked160222911
Stopped 20+ years15881400.890.69 to 1.170.3990.860.65 to 1.140.295
Stopped 15–<20 years273251.330.85 to 12.080.2131.330.82 to 2.140.241
Stopped 10–<15 years223201.420.87 to 2.340.1601.410.80 to 2.480.233
Stopped 5–<10 years135162.391.29 to 5.000.0152.461.28 to 4.720.008
Stopped <5 years92162.541.55 to 3.200.0082.241.01 to 4.960.047
Current smoker388612.371.63 to 3.45<0.0012.021.36 to 2.990.001