Table 2

 Physical activity and age-adjusted 15-year cumulative incidence and multivariate adjusted odds ratios of early and late age-related macular degeneration, Beaver Dam Eye Study, 1988–2005

Physical activity measureLevelIncidence of early AMDIncidence of geographic atrophyIncidence of exudative AMD
n% (SE)*OR (95% CI)†n% (SE)*OR (95% CI)†n% (SE)*OR (95% CI)†
AMD, age-related macular degeneration. n = number at risk.
*Age-adjusted cumulative incidence (see Methods for age-adjustment weights).
†ORs shown per increasing group of the risk factor, and are adjusted for age, sex, arthritis, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking and education.
Exercise statusSedentary230316.5 (0.8)28701.4 (0.3)28912.5 (0.3)
Active78114.1 (1.5)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)9621.8 (0.6)1.1 (0.5 to 2.3)9590.7 (0.3)0.3 (0.1 to 0.7)
p Value0.080.210.850.760.0050.008
Stair climbingNone61117.4 (1.5)8001.8 (0.5)8091.8 (0.5)
1–3 flights90616.1 (1.3)11281.5 (0.4)11312.1 (0.5)
4–6 flights81615.6 (1.4)10030.7 (0.3)10102.9 (0.6)
>6 flights75014.5 (1.7)0.9 (0.8 to 1.0)8992.3 (0.8)1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)8981.7 (0.7)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
p Value for trend0.040.150.850.930.600.96
WalkingNone134116.8 (1.1)16911.8 (0.4)17033.0 (0.5)
1–4 blocks65914.0 (1.5)8040.9 (0.4)8051.4 (0.5)
5–12 blocks65817.7 (1.6)8180.9 (0.4)8211.5 (0.5)
>12 blocks41914.8 (2.0)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)5112.2 (0.8)0.9 (0.7–1.2)5131.4 (0.6)0.7 (0.6 to 0.97)
p Value for trend0.130.420.530.550.0060.03