Table 3 Association of early age-related macular degeneration with education, stratified by gender and smoking status
Smoking statusEducational levelNo at riskNo (%) with early AMDAge–gender OR (95% CI)Multivariate* OR (95% CI)p Value for interaction
All personsPrimary or lower2442154 (6.3)2.2 (1.2 to 4.0)2.2 (1.2 to 4.0)
Secondary or higher80714 (1.7)1.01.0
p Value0.0080.008
MalesPrimary or lower109789 (8.1)2.0 (1.0 to 4.1)2.0 (1.0 to 4.1)0.92
Secondary or higher46610 (2.1)1.01.0
p Value0.0500.052
FemalesPrimary or lower135165 (4.8)2.6 (0.9 to 7.6)2.5 (0.9 to 7.4)
Secondary or higher3424 (1.2)1.01.0
p Value0.0810.95
Never smokedPrimary or lower153691 (5.9)3.6 (1.4 to 9.4)3.6 (1.4 to 9.4)0.201
Secondary or higher4645 (1.1)1.01.0
p Value0.0090.009
Ever smokedPrimary or lower90662 (6.8)1.5 (0.7 to 3.3)1.5 (0.7 to 3.2)
Secondary or higher3439 (2.6)1.01.0
p Value0.260.28
  • *Adjusted for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and body mass index.

  • AMD, age-related macular degeneration; OR, odds ratio.