Table 2 Overall and sex- and ethnicity-specific prevalences (95% CI) of strabismus, amblyopia, reduced presenting acuity in the better eye and hypermetropia in 7538 seven-year old children
Child’s visual defect at 7nOverall prevalence % (95% CI)Males %Females %pWhite %Non-white %p Value χ2
Latent (only) strabismus near and/or distance203727.0 (26.0 to 28.0)26.427.60.2427.127.60.97
Manifest strabismus1742.3 (2.0 to 2.7)2.52.10.242.31.50.15
Any amblyopia2723.6 (3.3 to 4.1)3.73.60.823.62.10.16
Impaired presenting vision in best eye (>0.3 logMAR)420.6 (0.4 to 0.7)0.40.70.180.51.00.25
Long-sighted (+2.0D or greater in either eye)3654.8 (4.4 to 5.3)5.04.70.555.01.70.012
Clinically significant convergent (manifest or 10+ pd latent)2112.8 (2.5 to 3.3)3.22.50.093.01.00.05
Clinically significant divergent (manifest or 15+ pd latent)450.6 (0.5 to 0.8)0.50.80.110.60.70.69
Hypermetropia or clinically significant convergent squint or amblyopia5487.3 (6.7 to 7.9)7.57.00.387.43.40.01