Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects
CharacteristicControl(n = 67)EarlyARM(n = 75)LateARM(n = 73)
Age (years)
    <6025 (37.3)7 (9.3)5 (6.8)
    60–6411 (16.4)10 (13.3)5 (6.8)
    65–6912 (17.9)18 (24.0)14 (19.2)
    70–7417 (25.3)26 (34.7)14 (19.2)
    ⩾752 (3.0)14 (18.7)35 (47.9)
Smoking (pack-years)
    032 (47.8)37 (49.3)11 (15.1)
    1–2416 (23.9)14 (18.7)25 (34.2)
    ⩾2519 (28.4)24 (32.0)37 (50.7)
Hypertension
    Absent35 (52.2)34 (45.3)25 (34.2)
    Present32 (47.8)41 (54.7)48 (65.8)
Facial wrinkling
    <0.10432 (47.8)18 (24.0)20 (27.4)
    0.104–0.131420 (29.9)29 (38.7)22 (30.1)
    ⩾0.131415 (22.4)28 (37.3)31 (42.5)
Facial hyperpigmentation
    <0.026419 (28.4)20 (26.6)31 (42.5)
    0.0264–0.034224 (35.8)27 (36.0)20 (27.4)
    ⩾0.034224 (35.8)28 (37.3)22 (30.1)
Upper inner arm skin tone L*
    <59.715 (22.4)26 (34.7)28 (38.4)
    59.7–62.121 (31.3)30 (40.0)24 (32.9)
    ⩾62.131 (46.3)19 (25.3)21 (28.8)
Upper inner arm skin tone a*
    <7.233 (49.3)21 (28.0)18 (24.7)
    7.2–8.521 (31.3)25 (33.3)25 (34.2)
    ⩾8.513 (19.4)29 (38.7)30 (41.1)
Upper inner arm skin tone b*
    <14.729 (43.3)18 (24.0)26 (35.6)?
    14.7–16.719 (28.4)24 (32.0)24 (32.9)
    ⩾16.719 (28.4)33 (44.0)23 (31.5)
  • Values are number (%).

  • ARM, age-related maculopathy.