Table 3

Outdoor activity and myopia, refractive error or axial length

Model A*Model B†
Odds ratio (95% CI)p ValueOdds ratio (95% CI)p Value
Myopia (spherical equivalent at least −0.5 dioptres)Outdoor (h/day)0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)0.0030.90 (0.84 to 0.96)0.004
Regression coefficient (95% CI)Regression coefficient (95% CI)
Refractive error (dioptres)Outdoor (h/day)0.18 (0.11 to 0.26)<0.00010.17 (0.1 to 0.25)<0.0001
Axial length (mm)Outdoor (h/day)−0.06 (−0.1 to −0.03)0.0002−0.06 (−0.1 to −0.03)0.0002
  • *Model A adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.

  • †Model B adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, school, books read per week, height and parental myopia, father’s education level and IQ level.

  • CI, confidence interval.