Table 1

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics stratified by severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

CharacteristicsAll (N=3252)No AMD (N=3070)Early AMD (N=159)Late AMD (N=23)p Value
Gender (%)
 Male48.147.459.169.60.002
Age (%)
 40–4924.825.98.80.0<0.001
 50–5929.129.917.08.7
 60–6923.823.531.513.0
 70–8022.220.742.878.3
Ethnicity (%)
 Malay65.465.564.856.50.422
 Boyanese12.212.211.917.4
 Javanese20.120.120.117.4
 Others/missing2.22.13.18.7
Education (%)
 Primary74.974.291.195.7<0.001
 Secondary18.419.07.14.3
 Postsecondary6.56.81.90.0
Income (%)
 <100056.456.060.178.30.002
 1000–200020.120.515.14.5
 2000–30007.37.53.80.0
 >30003.43.60.60.0
 Retired12.812.320.313.6
Smoking status (%)
 Never61.561.858.239.10.008
 Current20.320.515.234.8
 Past18.217.726.626.1
Hypertension (%)
 Absent31.532.416.413.0<0.001
 Present68.567.683.687.0
Diabetes (%)
 Absent76.776.778.069.60.670
 Present23.323.322.030.4
Stroke (%)
 Absent2.52.43.14.30.712
 Present97.597.696.995.7
 Present12.58.779.952.2
Eye condition (%)
 Absent52.954.137.126.1<0.001
 Present46.945.962.973.9
PVA—better eye (logMAR)
 Mean (SD)0.21 (0.23)0.20 (0.23)0.29 (0.25)0.40 (0.30)<0.001
PVA—worse eye (logMAR)
 Mean (SD)0.33 (0.27)0.32 (0.27)0.43 (0.27)0.51 (0.31)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Mean (SD)26.4 (5.11)26.4 (5.09)26.1 (5.64)25.3 (4.20)0.488
Glucose (mmol/l)
 Mean (SD)6.8 (3.68)6.8 (3.68)6.7 (3.90)6.70 (3.03)0.913
  • logMAR, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; PVA, presenting visual acuity.