Table 1

Demographics and main visual characteristics for healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients

Healthy controlsMultiple sclerosisTotal
SubjectsN3585120
EyesN70170240
GenderMale (%)12 (34.3)32 (37.6)44 (36.7)
Female (%)23 (65.7)53 (62.4)76 (63.3)
AgeMean (range)34 (23 to 57)39 (20 to 59)**37 (20 to 59)
Spherical refractive error testingMean (±SD)−0.68 (±1.98)−0.85 (±2.16)−0.80 (±2.11)
Range−5.75–3.75−9.75–3.50−9.75–3.75
Cylindrical refractive error testingMean (±SD)−0.52 (±0.50)−0.63 (±0.67)−0.60 (±0.63)
Range−1.75–0.00−3.25–0.00−3.25–0.00
Visus SnellenMean (±SD)1.17 (±0.18)1.13 (±0.22)1.14 (±0.21)
Range0.70–1.600.30–1.600.30–1.60
Expanded Disability Status ScaleMedian (range)2.0 (0.0 to 6.0)
Duration (months)Mean (range)71 (4 to 269)
Optic neuritisYes (%)48 (28.4)
No (%)121 (71.6)
  • For multiple sclerosis patients, the main disease parameters are given. Groups did not differ significantly in gender (χ2 analysis, p=0.623), spherical refractive error testing (Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE), p=0.617), cylindrical refractive error testing (GEE, p=0.375) and Visus (GEE, p=0.205) but did differ in age (ANOVA p=0.002).

  • ** Significant difference on p<0.01 level.