Table 1

Demographic data for healthy controls, and DNR and DR groups

DemographyHealthy controls (n=235)DNR (n=171)DR (n=171)
Sex (male/female)198/144100/7198/73
Age (years)55.2±5.059.2±9.656.1±10.1
BMI (kg/m2)25.6±4.8 (n=183)27.2±4.426.4±5.3
HbA1c (%)5.6±0.4 (n=183)7.9±1.89.0±2.1
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)3.8±0.6 (n=183)4.5±1.04.9±1.6
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.8±1.3 (n=183)1.6±0.71.7±0.9
HDL-C (mmol/l)1.0±0.3 (n=183)1.2±0.31.3±0.3
LDL-C (mmol/l)2.1±0.5 (n=183)2.5±0.92.8±1.3
ALT (IU/l)30–65*37.8±17.536.0±18.6
AST (IU/l)15–37*22.0±14.021.0±14.3
SBP (mm Hg)124.0±8.0 (n=183)136.5±19.5141.0±22.5
DBP (mm Hg)83.0±7.0 (n=183)79.0±10.580.1±12.6
Diabetes duration (years)10.4±7.914.8±8.6
Current smoker (yes/no)43/19229/14214/157
Alcohol intake (yes/no)70/16524/14718/153
Hypertension (yes/no)11/224134/37137/34
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD.

  • Dichotomous variables are given in absolute numbers and tested with χ2 test.

  • * Normal value range provided

  • p<0.05 versus healthy controls

  • p<0.05 versus DNR.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DNR, diabetic non-retinopathy; DR, diabetic retinopathy; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure.