Table 2

Causes of visual impairment (SI and SSI) paediatric certification in the years 1999–2000 and 2007/2008–2009/2010 in England and Wales

 Visual impairment (SI and SSI)
1999–2000*2007–2008†2008–2009‡2009–2010§
N%N′%′N%N′%′N%N′%′N%N′%′
Visual pathway and cortex
 Cerebral visual impairment13816.613916.717817.419418.918217.118817.720720.522021.8
 Other (including neoplasia of nervous system)374.4374.4424.1868.4918.611711.0393.9605.9
 Nystagmus8810.69411.3747.2868.4726.8908.5636.2757.4
Whole globe and anterior segment
 Anophthalmos/microphthalmos81.091.110.120.2121.1100.950.5121.2
 Anterior segment anomaly222.6222.680.890.9181.7222.1222.2222.2
 Corneal opacity70.870.8181.8202.0141.3171.680.880.8
 Primary glaucoma111.3111.3161.6161.6191.8191.8111.1141.4
 Other congenital anomaly404.8425.013913.615915.5777.3989.214714.615615.5
 Error of refraction303.6303.6212.0403.9262.4343.2181.8282.8
 Congenital infection70.870.890.9111.150.560.680.880.8
 Albinism576.8576.8696.7747.2837.8888.3717.0737.2
Lens
 Cataract384.6404.8222.1252.4212.0282.6313.1313.1
Uvea
 AniridiaNANANANA111.1121.290.890.8131.3131.3
 ColobomaNANANANA30.330.3100.9100.940.440.4
 UveitisNANANANA40.440.4100.9100.930.350.5
Retina
 Retinopathy of prematurity384.6384.6252.4323.1323.0343.2191.9191.9
 Retinal dystrophy10913.110913.116115.716416.016515.516815.816616.516816.7
 Retinal malignancy60.760.730.330.300.000.010.110.1
 Retinal detachment91.191.160.6101.0131.2161.550.560.6
 Other retinal disorder161.9172.0181.8232.2252.4343.2141.4202.0
Optic nerve
 Optic atrophy11113.311113.310910.611511.2817.6858.0717.0747.3
 Hereditary optic atrophy91.191.180.890.990.890.850.550.5
 Other optic nerve disorder344.1344.1191.9202.0464.3494.6434.3444.4
Other/not identified131.6131.6565.5565.5403.8424.0343.4444.4
Injury or poisoning50.650.650.570.720.220.210.120.2
Total833100.0846101.61025100.01180115.11062100.01185111.61009100.01112110.2
  • *Total count excludes unknown (SI or SSI) certification (N=28).

  • †Total count excludes unknown (SI or SSI) certification (N=59).

  • ‡Total count excludes unknown (SI or SSI) certification (N=26).

  • §Total count excludes unknown (SI or SSI) certification (N=31).

  • %, proportion of children with each condition as a main cause; %′, proportion of children with each condition including those with multiple causes; N, number of children with each condition as a main cause; N′, number of children with each condition including those who had multiple causes (because of multiple causes in some children N′ is greater than the actual number of children); SI, sight impairment; SSI, severe sight impairment.