Table 2

Association between dry eye disease (DED) cases*, dry eye symptoms and putative risk factors

Cases DED*Dry eye symptoms for past 3 months
Risk factorPrevalence of risk factor (%)Percentage (n=367/3538)OR†p ValuePercentage (n=794/3824)OR†p Value
Age (years)1.045 (1.035 to 1.055) <0.00051.014 (1.008 to 1.021)<0.0005
Use of contact lenses2.11.008 (0.43 to 2.37)0.991.78 (1.10 to 2.87) 0.018
 Yes8.830.5
 No10.420.6
Cataract surgery5.51.69 (1.16 to 2.47) 0.0061.70 (1.24 to 2.32) 0.001
 Yes23.233.5
 No9.620.0
Glaucoma3.21.56 (0.95 to 2.57)0.0771.34 (0.89 to 2.02)0.16
 Yes18.927.9
 No10.020.5
Age-related macular degeneration2.71.56 (0.91 to 2.66)0.1130.51.52 (0.99 to 2.33)0.054
 Yes19.420.4
 No10.0
Osteoporosis13.61.22 (0.97 to 1.53)0.081.20 (0.90 to 1.60)0.23
 Yes15.525.8
 No9.520.0
Asthma15.91.54 (1.17 to 2.04) 0.0021.40 (1.14 to 1.71) 0.001
 Yes13.325.3
 No9.719.9
Eczema18.91.48 (1.14 to 1.93)0.0041.70 (1.41 to 2.05)<0.0005
 Yes12.928.0
 No9.719.0
Allergy (any)28.41.42 (1.11 to 1.80) 0.0051.42 (1.20 to 1.68) <0.0005
 Yes11.724.4
 No9.719.2
Any thyroid problems13.61.61 (1.22 to 2.12)0.0011.38 (1.12 to 1.71)0.003
 Yes16.226.7
 No9.319.8
Hypothyroidism7.61.48 (0.95 to 2.29)0.081.30 (0.93 to 1.82)0.12
 Yes15.226.3
 No10.021.0
Hyperthyroidism2.41.68 (0.83 to 3.40)0.151.41 (0.80 to 2.49)0.24
 Yes17.928.3
 No10.221.2
Rheumatoid arthritis4.71.38 (1.02 to 1.87)0.0391.34 (1.02 to 1.75)0.034
 Yes22.032.6
 No9.720.1
Fertility problems8.71.45 (1.01 to 2.09)0.041.15 (0.88 to 1.52)0.31
 Yes13.022.6
 No10.120.6
Hypercholesterolaemia32.91.14 (0.90 to 1.43)0.281.31 (1.10 to 1.56)0.002
 Yes13.425.1
 No8.918.7
Hypertension28.70.98 (0.76 to 1.24)0.841.12 (0.94 to 1.35)0.20
 Yes12.923.9
 No9.319.6
Diabetes4.31.53 (0.99 to 2.37)0.061.22 (0.85 to 1.77)0.28
 Yes18.725.9
 No10.020.5
Osteoarthritis19.81.35 (1.08 to 1.68)0.00071.33 (1.11 to 1.59)0.002
 Yes16.927.7
 No8.719.1
Cancer11.01.11 (0.80 to 1.53)0.541.17 (0.92 to 1.49)0.21
 Yes13.624.6
 No9.920.2
Stroke1.81.64 (0.88 to 3.05)0.122.50 (1.55 to 4.02)<0.0005
 Yes22.242.5
 No10.120.4
Migraine23.11.47 (1.15 to 1.88)0.0021.24 (1.04 to 1.49)0.018
 Yes13.123.4
 No9.419.8
Irritable bowel syndrome20.02.24 (1.76 to 2.85)<0.000530.21.92 (1.60 to 2.30)<0.0005
 Yes17.118.4
 No8.6
Chronic widespread pain syndrome7.72.13 (1.42 to 3.18)<0.000539.82.61 (1.92 to 3.56)<0.0005
 Yes19.819.7
 No9.5
Pelvic pain14.31.86 (1.41 to 2.46)<0.00051.64 (1.33 to 2.02)<0.0005
 Yes16.228.8
 No9.719.7
Depression11.41.67 (1.27 to 2.19)<0.00051.67 (1.35 to 2.07)<0.0005
 Yes17.430.0
 No9.419.5
  • *A case of DED was assigned when there was a diagnosis of DED by a clinician and artificial tears were currently used.

  • †ORs (95% CI) of logistic regression, corrected for age, and corresponding p values are given. Statistically significant associations are shown in bold.