Table 2

Effect of sociodemographic factors on the prevalence of corneal opacity by logistic regression analysis

Risk FactorsCorneal opacityPrevalence
% (95% CI)
p ValueUnadjusted OR
(95% CI)
p ValueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
No
n=11 661
Yes
n=452
Age group (years)†
 0–15399730.08 (0.01 to 0.16)<0.001* 1.01.0
 16–395247290.55 (0.35 to 0.75) 7.36 (2.24 to 24.19)0.0017.34 (2.23 to 24.11)0.001*
 40–5916801608.70 (7.41 to 9.98)126.89 (40.44 to 398.17)<0.001126.23 (40.22 to 396.14)<0.001*
 ≥6073726026.08 (23.35 to 28.81)470.02 (150.20 to 1470.83)<0.001467.64 (149.42 to 1463.52)<0.001*
Gender†
 Male59662073.35 (2.90 to 3.80)1.01.0
 Female56952454.12 (3.62 to 4.63)0.025*1.24 (1.03 to 1.49)0.0251.07 (0.87 to 1.31)0.533
Corneal opacity‡

Risk Factors
No
n=7664
Yes
n=449
Prevalence
% (95% CI)

p Value
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)

p Value

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

p Value
Education§
 Illiterate155427114.85 (13.22 to 16.48)1.01.0
 Primary education¶831 637.05 (5.37 to 8.73)0.43 (0.33 to 0.58)<0.0010.80 (0.58 to 1.10)0.168
 Schooling (Std. 6–12)47151052.18 (1.77 to 2.59)0.13 (0.10 to 0.16)<0.0010.47 (0.34 to 0.64)<0.001*
 Graduate and above564101.74 (0.67 to 2.82)<0.001* 0.10 (0.05 to 0.19)<0.0010.52 (0.25 to 1.06)0.071
Occupation§
 Housework31671825.43 (4.67 to 6.20) 1.01.0
 Agricultural work616375.67 (3.89 to 7.44)1.04 (0.72 to 1.50)0.8121.02 (0.63 to 1.64)0.937
 Non-agricultural work1118443.79 (2.69 to 4.89)<0.001*0.68 (0.49 to 0.96)0.0271.21 (0.77 to 1.88)0.417
 Indoor work1041393.61 (2.50 to 4.73)0.65 (0.46 to 0.93)0.0171.59 (0.99 to 2.57)0.056
 Not working and students17221477.87 (6.64 to 9.09)1.5 (1.19 to 1.86)0.0011.48 (1.08 to 2.03)0.015*
  • *Statistically significant difference between groups.

  • †In the multivariable analysis, age and gender were adjusted for each other.

  • ‡Children aged 0–5 years were excluded.

  • §Education and occupation were adjusted for all the variables including age and gender and was done excluding children aged 0–15 years.

  • ¶Includes participants who could read and write.