Table 4

Causes and age distribution of corneal opacities and corneal blindness in the study population (n=435)

Corneal pathologyAge of participants (years)
Median (range)
People with CO
n=435
n (%)
Bilateral blind*
n=13
n (%)
Unilateral blind
n=54
n (%)
Pterygium associated CO55 (18–95)150 (34.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Traumatic CO60 (11–90)97 (22.3)0 (0.0)14 (25.9)
Infectious keratitis65 (30–94)65 (14.9)1 (7.7)12 (22.2)
Corneal dystrophy and degenerations72.5 (51–92)26 (6.0)3 (23.1)4 (7.4)
Trachomatous keratopathy68 (32–99)21 (4.8)2 (15.4)6 (11.1)
Aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy75 (62–94)17 (3.9)6 (46.2)8 (14.8)
Post-exanthematous CO65 (42–82)15 (3.5)0 (0.0)7 (13.0)
Iatrogenic CO68 (60–98)13 (3.0)0 (0.0)1 (1.9)
Vitamin A deficiency associated CO45.5 (14–58)4 (0.9)1 (7.7)1 (1.9)
Glaucoma with corneal decompensation63.5 (63–64)2 (0.5)0 (0.0)1 (1.9)
Miscellaneous65 (2–84)16 (3.8)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Unknown aetiology62 (22–74)9 (2.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
  • *Blindness defined as presenting visual acuity <3/60 in better eye.

  • CO, corneal opacity.