Table 3

Associations of EndoPAT indices with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in multivariate-adjusted models

Moderate DRVision-threatening DRMacular oedema
Age–gender adjustedMultivariate adjusted*Age–gender adjustedMultivariate adjusted*Age–gender adjustedMultivariate adjusted*
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
RHI
 1st quartile (0.91–1.44)ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 2nd quartile (1.45–1.67)0.46 (0.16 to 1.32)0.50 (0.15 to 1.66)0.42 (0.10 to 1.82)0.47 (0.10 to 2.21)0.33 (0.03 to 4.20)0.25 (0.02 to 3.09)
 3rd quartile (1.68–2.08)0.90 (0.33 to 2.45)1.01 (0.33 to 3.08)0.95 (0.23 to 3.88)0.97 (0.21 to 4.42)0.94 (0.13 to 7.18)1.36 (0.12 to 15.4)
 4th quartile (2.09–4.27)1.31 (0.50 to 3.45)1.28 (0.44 to 3.73)1.76 (0.48 to 6.43)1.29 (0.29 to 5.70)2.47 (0.33 to 18.5)1.77 (0.24 to 13.3)
P—trend: 0.340P—trend: 0.276P—trend: 0.272P—trend: 0.559P—trend: 0.279P—trend: 0.305
 Per SD increase1.36 (0.95 to 1.93)1.26 (0.90 to 1.77)1.59 (1.05 to 2.42)1.20 (0.77 to 1.86)1.47 (0.83 to 2.58)1.22 (0.72 to 1.95)
 p Value for trend0.0910.3990.0290.1110.1830.416
lnRHI
 1st quartile (−0.094–0.365)ReferentReferentReferentReferentReferentReferent
 2nd quartile (0.372–0.513)0.46 (0.16 to 1.32)0.50 (0.15 to 1.66)0.42 (0.10 to 1.82)0.47 (0.10 to 2.21)0.433 (0.03 to 4.20)0.25 (0.02 to 3.09)
 3rd quartile (0.519–0.732)0.90 (0.33 to 2.45)1.01 (0.33 to 3.08)0.95 (0.23 to 3.88)0.97 (0.21 to 4.42)0.94 (0.12 to 7.18)1.36 (0.12 to 15.4)
 4th quartile (0.737–1.450)1.31 (0.50 to 3.45)1.28 (0.44 to 3.73)1.76 (0.48 to 6.43)1.29 (0.29 to 5.70)2.47 (0.33 to 18.5)1.77 (0.24 to 13.3)
P—trend: 0.340P—trend: 0.380P—trend: 0.272P—trend: 0.559P—trend: 0.279P—trend: 0.305
 Per SD increase1.30 (0.91 to 1.88)1.22 (0.81 to 1.72)1.58 (0.96 to 2.58)1.14 (0.69 to 1.91)1.54 (0.78 to 3.04)1.28 (0.72 to 2.59)
 p Value for trend0.1540.3990.0720.2230.2160.403
AI
 1st quartile (−30.07–6.49)ReferentReferentReferentReferent
 2nd quartile (6.53–20.96)2.85 (0.97 to 8.33)5.45 (1.44 to 20.6)
 3rd quartile (21.0–31.49)1.26 (0.40 to 3.94)1.80 (0.50 to 6.57)
 4th quartile (31.50–79.83)3.77 (1.32 to 10.8)3.73 (1.10 to 12.7)
P—trend: 0.051P—trend: 0.105P—trendP—trend
 Per SD increase1.42 (1.01 to 2.01)1.34 (0.94 to 1.90)2.00 (1.29 to 3.11)1.73 (1.17 to 2.56)1.69 (0.89 to 3.22)1.78 (1.05 to 2.99)
 p Value for trend0.0450.1220.0020.0030.1090.029
AI@75
 1st quartile (−25.08–4.41)ReferentReferentReferentReferent
 2nd quartile (4.67–14.47)1.73 (0.62 to 4.79)2.03 (0.64 to 6.49)
 3rd quartile (14.94–27.36)1.12 (0.41 to 3.10)1.04 (0.36 to 2.96)
 4th quartile (27.71–77.76)2.14 (0.79 to 6.04)1.60 (0.52 to 4.85)
P—trend: 0.266P—trend: 0.055P—trendP—trend
 Per SD increase1.64 (1.15 to 2.34)1.43 (0.99 to 2.05)2.47 (1.58 to 3.85)2.02 (1.22 to 3.34)2.09 (1.01 to 4.34)1.87 (0.99 to 3.52)
 p Value for trend0.0060.670<0.0010.0200.040.054
  • *Multivariable model adjusted for age (years), gender, current smoking status (never, current, past), mean duration of diabetes (years), HbA1c, hypertension (absent, present).

  • AI, augmentation index; AI@75, AI standardised to a heart rate of 75 bpm; RHI, reactive hyperaemia index.