Table 2

Associations between diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade and EndoPAT indices

TotalMinimal NPDRMild NPDRModerate DRSevere DRProliferative DRp Value†
No (%)16440 (14.0)41 (0.14)58 (0.20)10 (3.5)15 (5.2)
Mean RHIAge–gender adjusted1.69 (1.50 to 1.88)1.73 (1.54 to 1.92)1.89 (1.73 to 2.04)2.03 (1.65 to 2.41)2.25 (1.94 to 2.56)0.001
Multivariate adjusted*1.70 (1.52 to 1.88)1.76 (1.58 to 1.94)1.88 (1.73 to 2.03)1.87 (1.50 to 2.23)2.17 (1.87 to 2.48)0.011
Mean lnRHIAge–gender adjusted0.50 (0.41 to 0.59)0.51 (0.42 to 0.60)0.59 (0.51 to 0.66)0.64 (0.46 to 0.82)0.74 (0.59 to 0.88)0.004
Multivariate adjusted*0.51 (0.42 to 0.59)0.52 (0.43 to 0.61)0.58 (0.51 to 0.65)0.57 (0.40 to 0.74)0.70 (0.55 to 0.84)0.027
Mean AIAge–gender adjusted18.1 (12.2 to 24.0)17.0 (11.1 to 22.8)23.0 (18.2 to 27.9)30.4 (18.6 to 42.3)40.1 (30.4 to 49.7)<0.001
Multivariate adjusted*18.9 (13.0 to 24.9)18.0 (12.0 to 23.9)22.5 (17.6 to 27.5)28.1 (16.0 to 40.2)39.1 (29.0 to 49.1)0.001
Mean AI@75Age–gender adjusted15.5 (9.9 to 21.0)14.2 (8.7 to 19.7)18.7 (14.1 to 23.3)26.5 (15.4 to 37.7)35.5 (26.4 to 44.6)<0.001
Multivariate adjusted*16.5 (11.0 to 21.9)15.4 (9.9 to 20.9)18.4 (13.8 to 22.9)23.0 (11.8 to 34.1)34.1 (24.8 to 43.4)0.004
  • *Multivariable model adjusted for age (years), gender, current smoking status (never, current, past), mean duration of diabetes (years), HbA1c, hypertension (absent, present).

  • †p Value for trend.

  • AI, augmentation index; AI@75, AI standardised to a heart rate of 75 bpm; NPDR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; RHI, reactive hyperaemia index.