Table 1

Association among lupus-related ocular posterior segment disorders to activity of systemic diseases and prognoses

AuthorsCases (n)Pathological siteVisual outcomeAssociation to systemic lupusAssociation to CNS lupusEye as an initial manifestationPrognosis for survival (mortality rate)
Case series
 Frigui et al6813Optic nerveModerate to poorPositiveNoYesNA
 Lanham et al6352Retina (mostly microangiopathy)GoodPositiveNoNoNA
 Jabs et al2611Retina (mostly vaso-occlusive cases)PoorPositivePositive (73%)NoNA
 Stafford-Brady et al27550Retina (mostly microangiopathy)GoodPositive (88%)Positive (73%)NoPoor (34% died in 16 years follow-up)
 Nguyen et al2528ChoroidEquivocal (improved vision after resolved choroidopathy)Positive (100%)Positive (36%)Yes (1 case)14%
 Baglio et al7816ChoroidNAPositive (100%)NANANA
Case reports
 Hwang and Kang561Retina (combined central retinal vein and artery occlusion)NAPositiveNoYesNA
 Giocanti- Auregan et al791ChoroidPoorPositivePositiveYesNA
 Wisotsky et al601ChoroidNAPositiveNAYesNA
  • NA, not available.