TableĀ 2

Types of interventions in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) randomised controlled trials (RCTs)

Intervention typeAdministrationExamplesNumber of interventions (N=177)
Anti-VEGFIntraocular injectionsAfibercept, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegaptanib45 (25.4%)
Anti-VEGF/NSAIDIntraocular injections/eye dropsRanibizumab/ketorolac, bromofenac3 (1.7%)
Anti-VEGF/PDTIntraocular injections/PDTAfibercept, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegaptanib/PDT17 (9.6%)
Anti-VEGF/radiotherapyIntraocular injections/radiotherapyRanibizumab/transpupillary thermotherapy, epimacular brachytherapy, different doses of radiation3 (1.7%)
Anti-VEGF/steroidIntraocular injectionsRanibizumab/triamcinolone, dexamethasone6 (3.4%)
Anti-VEGF/steroid/PDTIntraocular injections/PDTBevacizumab/PDT/triamcinolone1 (0.6%)
Anti-VEGF/supplementsIntraocular injections/supplementsAnti-VEGF/AREDS1/AREDS2 supplements1 (0.6%)
ElectrostimulationElectrostimulationTESMAC2 (1.1%)
LaserLaser2RT nanosecond laser, micropulse laser4 (2.3%)
PDT/radiotherapyPDT/radiotherapyPDT/transpupillary thermotherapy1 (0.6%)
RadiotherapyRadiotherapyExternal beam radiotherapy, episcleral brachytherapy14 (7.9%)
SteroidIntraocular injectionsTriamcinolone, anecortave acetate2 (1.1%)
Steroid/PDTIntraocular injections/PDTTriamcinolone, anecortave acetate/PDT2 (1.1%)
SupplementsSupplementsSaffron, zeaxanthin, lutein, DHA, EPA31 (17.5%)
SurgerySurgeryMacular relocation surgery, cataract surgery, RPE transplantation4 (2.3%)
Visual rehabilitationVisual rehabilitationBiofeedback, eccentric viewing training2 (1.1%)
Other, eg, immunosuppression, stem cells, choroidal blood flow facilitation, gene therapyDifferent, eg, eye drops, intraocular injections, blood filtrationLFG316, sirolimus, fenretinide, rheohaemapheresis, squalamine lactate, MC-110139 (22.0%)
  • Anti-VEGF, antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment; AREDS1, Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1; AREDS2, Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; NSAID, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs; PDT, photodynamic therapy; TESMAC, transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the macula.