Table 1

Visual outcomes of presbyopia procedures

AuthorProcedureStudy designNumber of eyesUCNVABDCNVAAdditional testsComplications
Levinger et al4Monovision induced by LASIK1 year380.06 logMAR (binocularNot available▸ CS reduced in mesopic condition.
▸ Near stereoacuity 57 s of arc
▸ 85.2% of satisfaction
Not reported
Greenbaum6Monovision pseudophakia1 year120 cataract/20 CLE0.0 logMAR or better (binocular) in 91% cataract and 95% CLENot available▸ 91% acceptance cataract
▸ 95% acceptance CLE
▸ 1 dry eye
▸ 1 vitreous loss
▸ 1 iris atrophy
▸ 20% reported haloes and glare in cataract in CLE
Uthoff et al17Multifocal corneal ablation6 months20 (emmetropic), 20 (hyperopic), 20 (myopic)0.18 logRAD (emmetropic), 0.24 logRAD (hyperopic), 0.12 logRAD (myopic) binocularNot availableCS significantly reduced in all groupsNot reported
McDonald et al18Conductive keratoplasty6 months1430.18 logMAR or better in 77% (monocular)Not available76% reported very satisfied/satisfiedNot reported
Menassa et al19Intrastromal femtosecond Ring
18 months250.2 logMAR (monocular)Not availableCorneal steepening 0.90 D▸ 36% reported rings around light sources
Limnopoulou et al20Flexivue microlens inlay1 year470.14 logMAR (monocular), 0.13 logMAR (binocular)Not available▸ HOA increased.
▸ CS decreased.
▸ 81.25% reported
▸ UCNVA excellent
No surgical complications
Garza et al21The raindrop Inlay1 year20<0.1 logMAR (monocular and binocular)Not available▸ Photopic CS no significant change.
▸ 95% reported satisfied or very satisfied UCNVA, UCIVA.
▸ 100% satisfied or very satisfied UCDVA
▸ 1 patient reported severe haloes at 6 months,
▸ 10% inlays removed because dissatisfaction, decentration.
Seyeddain et al22The Kamra inlay2 years prospective240.1 logMAR (monocular)Not available0.1 logMAR UCIVA ▸ 1 eye with epithelial ingrowth in the pocket
▸ 1eye with epithelial iron deposit
Baily et al23The Icolens corneal inlay1 year520.4 logMAR (monocular)Not available90% reported happy with the procedure11 inlay explanted because minimal improvement UCNVA
(ASCRS 2011)
The LaserACE procedure18 months1340.18 logMAR or better in 89%Not available▸ 1.25–1.75 D increase in objective accommodation.
▸ 0.18 logMAR or better in 95% UCIVA
No major complications
Berrow (2014)62PresVIEW scleral implant3 months (ongoing 2 years FDA clinical trial)28Not available0.3 logMAR 100% (monocular, binocular)Mean lines of improvement at near 2.3 monocular and 2.0 binocularNot reported
  • Note: some visual acuities were converted to logMAR using the visual acuity conversion chart prepared by Jack T Holland.

  • BDCNVA, best distance corrected near visual acuity; CLE, clear lens extraction; CS, contrast sensitivity; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; HOA, high order aberration; LogMAR, log minimum angle of resolution; logRAD, logarithm of the reading acuity determination; UCDVA, uncorrected distance visual acuity; UCIVA, uncorrected intermediate visual acuity; UCNVA, uncorrected near visual acuity.