Table 1

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification used in our grading for DR screening based on UK guidelines6

Grade of retinopathyDescriptionFeatures
R1BackgroundMicro aneurysms
Retinal haemorrhages+any exudate
R2Pre-proliferativeVenous beading
Venous loop or reduplication
Intraretinal microvascular abnormality (IRMA)
Multiple deep, round or blot haemorrhages
Cotton wool spots in addition to above features
R3ProliferativeNew vessels on disc (NVD)
New vessels elsewhere (NVE)
Preretinal or vitreous haemorrhage
Extensive fibrovascular proliferation
Pre-retinal fibrosis±tractional retinal detachment
MaculopathyM0No maculopathy
M1Exudate within one disc diameter (DD) of centre of fovea
Circinate or group of exudates within the macula
Retinal thickening less than or equal to one DD of centre of fovea (if stereo available)
Any microaneurysm or haemorrhage within one DD of centre of fovea only if VA (if no stereo) ≤6/12
PhotocoagulationPFocal or scatter laser scars
Other lesionsOLOther lesions such as non-diabetic lesions as age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
UnclassifiableUUngradableEg, if media opacity, poor view on photographs