Table 3

Prevalence of DR in diabetics and in the entire sample using the Scottish DR grading system

Among diabeticsFull sampleAmong known diabeticsAmong new cases
Np (95% CI)p (95% CI)Np (95% CI)Np (95% CI)
Retinopathy grade
 No retinopathy (R0)50272.9% (69.4 to 76.3)17.9% (15.7 to 20.1)45072.9% (69.1 to 76.5)5272.2% (59.4 to 82.2)
 Background DR—mild (R1)*547.8% (6.0 to 9.7)1.9% (1.4 to 2.4)538.6% (6.8 to 10.8)11.4% (0.2 to 10.0)
 Background DR—observable (R2)†202.9% (1.6 to 4.2)0.7% (0.4 to 1.0)172.8% (8.1 to 25.9)34.2% (1.3 to 12.2)
 Background DR—referable (R3)‡314.5% (2.7 to 6.3)1.1% (0.6 to 1.6)315.0% (3.3 to 7.5)
 Proliferative DR (R4)§263.8% (2.2 to 5.3)0.9% (0.5 to 1.3)264.2% (2.8 to 6.3)
 Ungradable DR (R6)¶71.0% (0.0 to 2.0)0.2% (0.0 to 0.5)71.1% (0.4 to 3.1)
 Any DR13820.0% (17.1 to 23.0)4.9% (4.0 to 5.9)13421.7% (18.8 to 25.0)45.6% (2.1 to 14.1)
Diabetic maculopathy grade
 No maculopathy (M0)**55580.6% (77.7 to 83.4)19.8% (17.4 to 22.1)50281.4% (78.3 to 84.1)5373.6% (61.0 to 83.3)
 Maculopathy—observable (M1)††243.5% (2.2 to 4.8)0.9% (0.5 to 1.2)233.7% (2.5 to 5.5)11.4% (0.2 to 9.7)
 Maculopathy—referable (M2)‡‡405.8% (4.0 to 7.6)1.4% (0.9 to 1.9)396.3% (4.6 to 8.6)11.4% (0.2 to 10.0)
 Any maculopathy8512.3% (9.6 to 15.0) 3.0% (2.3 to 3.8)8213.3% (10.7 to 16.4)34.2% (1.3 to 12.8)
 Any retinopathy and/or maculopathy14921.6% (18.9 to 24.4)5.3% (4.4 to 6.3)14423.3% (20.7 to 26.2)56.9% (2.8 to 16.0)
 Sight threatening DR (R4 and/or M2)558.0% (5.7 to 10.2)2.0% (1.3 to 2.6)548.8% (6.5 to 11.7)11.4% (0.2 to 10.0)
 Any laser scars7010.2% (7.9 to 12.5)2.5% (1.8 to 3.1)6811% (8.8 to 13.7)22.8% (0.7 to 10.8)
  • *The presence of at least one dot/blot/superficial/flame shaped haemorrhage, microaneurysm, hard exudate or cotton wool spot.

  • †Four or more blot haemorrhages in one hemifield only.

  • ‡Four or more blot haemorrhages in both inferior and superior hemifields, or venous beading or intraretinal microvascular abnormalities.

  • §Active new vessels or vitreous haemorrhage.

  • ¶Retina not sufficiently visible for assessment.

  • **No features ≤2 disc diameters from the centre of the fovea.

  • ††Lesions within a radius of >1, but ≤2 disc diameters of the centre of the fovea, any hard exudates.

  • ‡‡Lesions within a radius of ≤1 disc diameter of the centre of the fovea, any blot haemorrhages and/or any hard exudates.

  • DR, diabetic retinopathy.