Table 2

ORs for trends over time, environmental setting and methods of refractive assessment

FactorNumber of study populationsAdjusted odds ratio*
(95% credible interval)
Calendar Time
 Per decade in whites340.85 (0.69, 1.05)
 Per decade in East Asians651.23 (1.00, 1.55)
Per decade in South Asians231.05 (0.45, 2.63)
Environmental setting
 Urban1152.61 (1.79, 3.86)
 Mixed†122.71 (1.63, 4.68)
Study design characteristics
 Cycloplegia—no432.12 (1.76, 2.52)
 Subjective refraction/retinoscopy851.00
 Closed field autorefraction542.18 (1.79, 2.73)
 Open field autorefraction121.30 (0.89, 1.85)
  • *ORs are the medians (95% credible intervals in parenthesis) of the posterior distributions from the Bayesian multilevel binomial logistic regression of the log odds of myopia adjusting for ethnic specific associations with age, ethnic specific associations with survey year (for white, East Asian and South Asian children, only) and environmental setting. The multilevel model took into account that some study populations provide only one age-specific estimate whereas others contribute data for several age groups. ORs for the study design characteristics are based on a subset of studies that specifically reported whether cycloplegia was used. ORs for environmental setting and study design characteristics were assumed to be common across ethnicities.

  • †Mixed refers to studies that reported myopia prevalence for urban and rural groups combined.