Table 3.4

Class: Beta-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS

CompoundMode of actionIOP reductionContra-indicationsSide effects
NonselectiveTimolol 0.1-0.25-0.5% Levobunolol 0.25% Metipranolol 0.1-0.3% Carteolol 0.5-2.0% Befunolol 0.5%Decreases aqueous humour production20-25%Asthma, history of COPD, sinus bradycardia (< 60 beats/min), heart block, or cardiac failureLocal: Conjunctiva hyperaemia, SPK, dry eye, corneal anesthesia, allergic blepharo- conjunctivitis Systemic: Bradycardia, arrhythmia, heart failure, syncope, bronchospasm, airways obstruction, distal oedema, hypotension, Hypoglycemia may be masked in Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), nocturnal systemic hypotension, depression, sexual dysfunction
Beta-1- selectiveBetaxolol 0.5%Decreases aqueous humour production±20%Asthma, history of COPD, sinus bradycardia (< 60 beats/min), heart block, or cardiac– coronary failureLocal: Burning, stinging more pronounced than with non-selective compounds Systemic: Respiratory and cardiac side effects less pronounced than with non-selective compounds, depression, erectile dysfunction