Table 2

Published studies of the Baerveldt glaucoma implant for refractory childhood glaucoma

ParametersOur studyMandalos et al 15
J Glaucoma, 2016
Tai et al 14
JAAPOS, 2014
Van Overdam et al 12
Br J Ophthalmol, 2006
de Moura et al 13
Am J Ophthalmol, 2005
Budenz et al 11
Ophthalmology, 2004
Study designProspective,
non-comparative
Retrospective,
non-comparative
Retrospective,
non-comparative
Retrospective,
non-comparative
Retrospective,
non-comparative
Retrospective,
non-comparative
GDD usedAADI
(ligature)
No stent/MMC
BGI or Molteno
stent; MMC
BGIBGIBGIBGI (50–1 stage;
12–2 stage)
Patients<16 years
(31 eyes; 34)
<18 years
(69 eyes; 52)
<19 years
(46 eyes; 35)
<16 years
(55 eyes; 40)
<16 years
(48 eyes; 48)
<18 years
(62 eyes; 62)
Average age8.22 ±−3.61 years8.3 ±−5.1 years5 months to 19 years3.3±3.6 years4.1±4.9 years6.5±5.2 years
Study period2013–20152004–20112000–20101998–20031990–1999Not defined
Minimum follow-up
Average follow-up
6 months 18.3±6.9 months6 months 
45.7±25.2 months
3 months2 months 31.9±18.9 months4 months
Median 21 months
6 months
24.8±2.5 months
Efficacy
(success rates
IOP 6–21 mm Hg)
100%, 6 months
91.18%, 1 year
81.7%, 18 months
81.7% 2 years
95.6%, 1 year
71.3%, 5 years
39.7%, 8 years
93.3%, 3–9 months
86.7%, 1 year
86.7%, 2 years
94%, 1 year
94%, 2 years
85%, 3 years
78%, 4 years
95.0 %, 6 months
90.5%, 1 year
87.2%, 18 months
83.7%, 2 years
74.4% 3 years
87%, 6 months
82%, 1 year
68%, 2 years
Complications requiring interventionCataract: 3 (8.8%)
Retinal detachment: 1
Cataract: 23%
Encapsulation: 16.4%
Endophthalmitis: 5.8%
BGI replacement: 2
No LP:  1
Cataract: 3
Phthisis: 2
Cataract: 10%
Vitreous haemorrhage: 8.3%
Retinal detachment: 2
Tube exposure: 1
Retinal detachment: 5
Endophthlamitis: 1
Phthisis: 1
  • AADI, Aurolab aqueous drainage implant; BDI, Baerveldt glaucoma implant; GDD, glaucoma drainage device; MMC, mitomycin C.