Table 3

Associations between the rate of myopia progression (compared with slow progression) and possible risk factors

CharacteristicsMultinomial logistic regression†
Moderate progression
(−1.0D<ΔSE≤−0.5 D)
Fast progression
(ΔSE≤−1.0 D)
95% CICrude
95% CI
Demographics and parental characteristics
Age (year) to 1.690.780.750.55 to 1.00
Sex (ref=female)
 Male1.041.040.88 to to 1.28
Area of residence (ref=urban)
 Suburban0.910.930.79 to 1.100.960.990.83 to 1.18
Baseline spherical equivalent (D)0.90*0.90*0.83 to 0.990.66***0.67***0.61 to 0.72
Maternal education level (ref=college)
 High school or less0.910.910.75 to 1.090.82*0.850.69 to 1.03
Parental myopia (ref=none of both)
 One myopic0.910.870.58 to 1.311.521.400.83 to 2.35
 Both myopic0.940.860.58 to 1.271.83*1.500.90 to 2.48
Near work habits
Age when starting near work (ref=≥6 years)
 <6 years1.001.000.76 to 1.330.870.810.61 to 1.08
Time spent on near work daily (ref=<2 hours)
 ≥2 hours0.970.940.78 to 1.121.22*1.170.97 to 1.42
Distance from near work (ref=≥30 cm)
 <30 cm1.131.130.93 to 1.371.52***1.45***1.18 to 1.78
10 min rest period after 30 min of near work (ref=yes)
 No0.970.950.78 to to 1.32
Use of cellphones, computers or computer tablets in the past year (ref=no)
 Yes0.980.990.73 to 1.331.121.180.85 to 1.65
Outdoor activities
Time spent in outdoor activities after school on weekdays (ref=≥1 hour/day)
 <1 hour/day0.970.980.79 to to 1.55
Time spent in outdoor activities after school on the weekend (≥2 hours/day)
 <2 hours/day1.001.010.84 to 1.220.910.900.74 to 1.10
After-school tutorial programme (ref=no)
 Yes0.940.920.75 to 1.140.870.870.69 to 1.09
‘Cycloplegics’ use (ref=yes)
 No0.79**0.82*0.69 to 0.981.071.120.93 to 1.35
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †For statistical analysis, multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association between the myopia progression and risk factors.