Table 4

Associations between the change in spherical equivalent and possible risk factors

Characteristics Linear regression*
Simple linear regressionMultiple linear regression
p ValueβStandard error95% CIp ValueβStandard error 95% CI VIF
Demographics and parental characteristics
Age (year)0.4520.040.05−0.06 to 0.130.4770.030.05−0.06 to 0.131.01
Sex (male/female (ref))0.427−0.020.03−0.08 to 0.040.433−0.020.03−0.08 to 0.0351.01
Area of residence (suburban/urban (ref))0.3420.030.03−0.03 to 0.090.5230.020.03−0.04 to 0.0771.01
Baseline spherical equivalent (D)0.0770.020.010.00 to 0.050.1140.020.01−0.01 to 0.051.02
Maternal education level (H/C (ref))0.2550.040.03−0.03 to 0.100.6590.010.03−0.05 to 0.081.28
Parental myopia
 One myopic/none (ref)0.040−0.100.05−0.19 to 0.000.178−0.100.08−0.25 to 0.054.91
 Both myopic/none (ref)0.001−0.140.04−0.21 to 0.060.096−0.120.07−0.27 to 0.026.18
Near work habits
Age when starting near work (<6/≥6 years (ref))0.8640.010.05−0.09 to 0.110.7870.010.05−0.08 to 0.111.97
Time spent on near work daily (≥2/<2 hour (ref))0.214−0.040.03−0.102 to 0.0230.705−0.010.03−0.08 to 0.051.16
Distance from near work (<30/≥30 cm (ref))0.0001−0.130.03−0.19 to – 0.060.001−0.110.03−0.18 to 0.041.24
10-min rest period after 30 min of near work (yes (ref)/no)0.002−0.110.04−0.17 to –0.040.043−0.070.04−0.14 to –0.0021.44
Use of cellphones, computers or computer tablets in the past year (yes/no (ref))0.782−0.020.05−0.12 to 0.090.946−0.0030.05−0.11 to 0.102.20
Time spent participating in outdoor activities after school
On weekdays (<1/≥1 hour/day (ref))0.104−0.060.04−0.14 to 0.010.180−0.050.04−0.13 to 0.021.58
On the weekend (<2/≥2 hours/day (ref))0.580−0.020.03−0.08 to 0.050.796−0.010.03−0.08 to 0.061.32
After-school tutorial programme
Attending an after-school tutorial programme (yes/no (ref))0.33250.040.04−0.038 to 0.1120.2280.050.04−0.03 to 0.121.47
‘Cycloplegics’ use (no/yes (ref))0.02740.070.030.007 to 0.1250.1750.040.03−0.02 to 0.101.10
  • *For statistical analysis, simple and multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between the myopia progression and risk factors. H/C, high school or less/college or beyond; VIF, variance inflation factor.