Table 1

Defintions, diagnostic criteria and sample characteristics of included studies

Article IDTerminology Descriptive definition Diagnostic criteria Explicit definition§ Quality assessment Quality grading
Vision*Brain†Eye‡Vision*Brain†Eye‡Did the elements of the definition and diagnostic criteria match?
Frank & Torres (1979)44 Cortical and cerebral blindness110101YesNoPoor
Mohn et al (1983)83 Cortical blindness101101YesYesGood
Robertson et al (1986)57 Cortical visual impairment202252YesNoPoor
Roland et al (1986)54 Cortical visual impairment201202YesNoPoor
Jan et al (1987)62 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR262NRNAPoor
Bencivenga et al (1989)56 Cortical visual impairment060251DNRDSNoPoor
Flodmark et al (1990)4 Cortical visual impairment220NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Taylor & McCulloch (1991)84 Cortical blindness101NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Wong (1991)63 Cortical visual impairment201201YesYesGood
Chen et al (1992)85 Cortical visual impairment241201YesNoPoor
Frank et al (1992)47 Cerebral blindness151101YesNoPoor
Schenk-Rootlieb et al (1992)86 Cerebral visual disturbance3w40202YesNoPoor
Granet et al (1993)87 Central visual impairment301221DNRDSNoPoor
Jan et al (1993)45 Cortical visual impairment220NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Schenk-Rootlieb et al (1993)88 Cerebral visual impairment340202YesNoPoor
Schenk-Rootlieb et al (1994)89 Cerebral visual impairment340202YesNoPoor
Eken et al (1995)59 Cerebral visual impairmentNRNRNR202NRNAPoor
Cioni et al (1996)62 Cerebral visual impairment320200YesNoPoor
Eken et al (1996)60 Cerebral visual impairmentNRNRNR202NRNAPoor
Kwok et al (1996)90 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR201NRNAPoor
Uggetti et al (1996)91 Cerebral visual impairment202NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Cioni et al (1997)61 Cerebral visual impairment220NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Lanzi et al(1998)65 Cerebral visual impairment202NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Stiers et al (1998)92 Cerebral visual impairment340302YesNoPoor
Huo et al (1999)9 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR202NRNAPoor
Oud et al (1999)58 Cerebral visual impairment340041YesNoPoor
Choi et al (2001)93 Cortical visual impairment150201YesNoPoor
Good (2001)50 Cortical visual impairment212301YesNoPoor
Weiss et al (2001)94 Cortical visual impairment321101YesNoPoor
Brodsky et al (2002)81 Retrogeniculate visual loss030222DNRDSNoPoor
Sakai et al (2002)46 Cerebral visual impairment340221YesNoPoor
Hoyt (2003)5 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR202NRNAPoor
Skozenski & Good (2004)82 Cortical visual impairment220201YesNoPoor
Sie et al (2005)48 Cerebral visual impairment040201DNRDSNoPoor
Good & Hou (2006)51 Cortical and cerebral visual impairment231201YesNoPoor
Matsuba & Jan (2006)30 Cortical visual impairment020300DNRDSNoPoor
Fazzi et al (2007)18 Cerebral visual impairment351NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Khetpal & Donahue (2007)43 Cortical visual impairment201302YesNoPoor
Ghasia et al (2008)20 Cerebral visual impairment202NRNRNRYesNAMedium
Ferziger et al (2011)73 Cerebral visual impairment220302YesNoPoor
Good et al (2012)52 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR201NRNAPoor
Weinstein et al (2012)95 Cerebral visual impairment260262DNRDSNoPoor
Bosch et al (2014a)53 Cerebral visual impairment251302YesNoPoor
Bosch et al (2014b)49 Cerebral visual impairment341302YesNoPoor
Cavascan et al (2014)34 Cerebral visual impairment241241YesYesGood
Chong & Dai (2014)96 Cerebral visual impairment241201YesNoPoor
Geldof et al (2015)68 Cerebral visual impairment320321YesNoPoor
Mezer et al (2015)97 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR220NRNAPoor
Binder et al (2016)67 Cortical visual impairment202202YesYesGood
Kemmanu et al (2016)98 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR201NRNAPoor
Ozturk et al (2016)99 Cortical visual impairmentNRNRNR251NRNAPoor
  • *Vision subthemes: 0, not present; 1, complete blindness; 2, visual impairment; 3, visual dysfunction

  • †Brain subthemes: 0, not present; 1, brain damage; 2, posterior visual pathway damage; 3, optic radiation damage; 4, retrochiasmatic pathway damage; 5, retrogeniculate pathway damage; 6, visual pathway damage, including higher visual association areas

  • ‡Eye subthemes : 0, not present; 1, normal/near normal eye health; 2, extent of vision problems not explained by any eye problems; NR, not reported

  • §Explicit definition: Yes, explicit definition; DNRDS, description not reaching definition status