Table 1

Distribution of education and socioeconomic status by refractive error, by different thresholds for myopia

Refractive error categoryModerate to severe myopia*Mild myopiaEmmetropiaHypermetropia†
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 1Model 2Model 3
SE≤−3.0D−2.99 to −1D–2.99 to −0.75D−2.99 to −0.5D>-1 to <+1D>−0.75 to <+1D>−0.5 to <+1D≥+1D
Highest educational attainment
 <O levels229881613018189202372419523136224425
 O levels71291542819627259283283328634223365430
 A levels42171222215221193211761714618105172916
 Higher education113461903424534291312642620925163265129
Socioeconomic status
  • Frequencies are based on mean SE between the two eyes in individuals.

  • *Moderate to severe myopia SE −3.00 D or more extreme (≤−3.0D) in all models.

  • †Hypermetropia SE +1.00D or more extreme (≥+1D) in all models.

  • SE, spherical equivalent.