Table 1

Literature review of clinical cases and case series of interface keratitis following DALK

Patients (n)Age
Microorganism isolated from specimensTime to infection onset (day)Donor rim cultureTime to positive donor rim culture report (day)Medical treatment topical and /or systemicSurgical treatmentEndophtha
Visual outcome
(BSCVA Snellen)
Postoperative complications
Panda et al 5 155 Rhodotorula sp
(donor button+interface biopsy)
5nrnrTopical natamycin 5% Amphotericin B 0.15%Donor button exchangeNonrNo
Fontana et al 6 130 Candida albicans
(donor button)
28 C. albicans 5Topical amphotericin B (3 mg/mL)
Liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg) IV
Donor button exchange+interface amphotericin B (5 µg/0.1 mL)
Kanavi et al 7 221 Candida glabrata
(donor button)
60nrnrTopical amphotericin B,
oral ketoconazole 400 mg once in a day
Interface irrigation with DM rupture
25 C. albicans
(donor button)
75nrnrNatamycin 5%,
oral ketaconazole 400 mg once in a day
Zarei-Ghanavati et al 8 135 Klebsiella pneumoniae
(donor button)
2 Klebsiella pneumoniae 2Topical vancomycin (50 mg/mL), ceftazidime (50 mg/mL)PKNo20/20No
Caretti et al 9 121Actinomyces species
(donor button)
6nrnrTopical ofloxacin 0.3%, betamethasone 0.13%+chloramphenicol 0.25%, amphotericin BPK
PK graft exchange
Bahadir et al 10 123Candida species
(donor button)
30Not performednaTopical amphotericin B (5 µg/mL), cefuroxime (1 mg/mL)
Liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/mL) IV
Oral itraconazole 200 mg OD
Interface irrigation DM rupture
Sedaghatet al 11 118 C. albicans
(irrigation liquid)
120NegativenrTopical ceftazidime (50 mg/mL), vancomycin (50 mg/mL), natamycin 5%Interface irrigation (amphotericin B 0.15%) DM ruptureNo20/30No
Wesse et al 12 139 Candida orthopsilosis (donor button)5Yeasts6Topical voriconazole, oral voriconazole 400 mg two times a dayInterface irrigation voriconazole (0.25 mg/mL)+amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL)
Murthy et al 13 126Atypical Mycobacterium
(donor button)
90nrnrTopical amikacin 2.5%Donor button exchange
Le et al 14 131 C. glabrata
(donor button)
6Medium culture negative
Donor rim culture not performed
nrTopical levofloxacin 0.5%, fluconazole 0.5%Interface irrigation cefuroxime 5%+fluconazole (0.8 g/L) donor button exchange
Kodavoor15 132NNegative90nrnrTopical voriconazole, natamycin, oral itraconazole 100 mg twice a dayNoneNo20/80Leucomatous scar
  • BSCVA, best-spectacle corrected visual acuity; DM, Descemet membrane; PK, penetrating keratoplasty; na, not applicable; nr, not reported.