Table 1

Imaging modality and features of microvascular abnormalities detected by each

Imaging modalityFeatureDescription
Colour photographNerve fibre layer infarctsCotton wool spots
Retinal haemorrhageFlecks of haemorrhage assuming a feathery or circular disposition indicating nerve fibre layer location or in the inner retina.
Fluorescein angiogramMicroaneurysmsFocal circular outpouchings from retinal microvessels
Luminal irregularitiesSegmental narrowing of retinal vessels
Retinal vascular telangiectasiaFusiform dilations of retinal microvessels
Capillary non-perfusionAreas of decreased fluorescence in a perivascular distribution
Vascular sheathingGlistening or white perivascular appearance indicating presence of gliosis/fibrosis
Leakage from retinal vesselsDiffuse staining and hyperfluorescence along the length of retinal vessels
Optical coherence tomographyIntraretinal oedemaHyporeflective areas within the neurosensory retina in an area not occupied by the neovascular lesion