Table 4

Reports of prevalence of astigmatism in different countries

AuthorCountry, Study populationAge (year)Sample sizeDefinition of astigmatismPrevalence of astigmatism
RACAIA
Current studyCentral China, urban, population-based12 (10.0–15.6)1783≥0.75 D31.671.342.1
≥1.0 D17.452.820.9
≥1.5 D5.920.13.1
Leung et al, 201230 Hong Kong, clinical patients3 to 842759≥1.0 D28.4
Tong et al, 200217 Singapore, two schools7–91028≥1.0 D19.2
Shih et al, 200412 Taiwan, urban, population-based7–1810 878≥1.0 D32.6
Huynh et al, 200631 Australia, urban, population-based61765≥0.50 D22.674.978.5
≥0.75D10.349.548.4
≥1.0 D4.827.721.1
Huynh et al, 20074 Australia, urban, population-based122353≥0.75D13.644.851.9
≥1.0 D6.726.626.5
≥1.5 D2.66.83.3
He et al, 200733 Southern China, rural, population-based13–152454≥0.75 D25.3
Zhan et al, 200010 China (Xiamen), population-based6–7382≥1.0 D6.8
He et al, 20049 Southern China, urban, population-based (RESC)5–154364≥0.75 D42.7
Zhao et al, 200029 China, urban, population-based (RESC)5–155884≥0.75 D9.5
Murthy et al, 200216 India, urban, population-based (RESC)7–156447≥0.75 D9.8
Dandona et al, 200215 India, rural, population-based (RESC)7–154074≥0.75 D5.9
Fotouhi et al, 20115 Iran, Dezful, urban, population-based (RESC)7~155544≥0.75 D10.9
Pokharel et al, 200028 Nepal, rural, population-based (RESC)5–155067≥0.75 D3.5
Villarreal et al, 200326 Mexico, urban, population-based12–131035≥1.5 D9.5
Villarreal et al, 200025 Sweden, population-based12–131045≥1.5 D5.2
Maul et al, 200034 Chile, urban, population-based (RESC)5–155303≥0.75 D19
O'Donoghue et al, 20116 Northern Ireland, urban, population-based12–13661≥1.0 D2025
  • CA, corneal astigmatism; IA, internal astigmatism; RA, refractive astigmatism; RESC, Refractive Error Study in Children.