Table 1

Prevalences of RA, CA and IA at different magnitudes as well as the condition of children with or without lens correction

≥0.5 D≥0.75 D≥1.0 D≥1.5 D
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
RA54.8 (52.3 to 57.1)31.6 (29.5 to 33.8)17.4 (15.6 to 19.2)5.9 (4.8 to 7.0)
 Boys53.3 (50.1 to 56.6)30.7 (27.7 to 33.7)17.7 (15.2 to 20.2)6.5 (47.8 to 8.1)
 Girls56.2 (53.0 to 59.4)32.6 (29.5 to 35.6)17.1 (14.7 to 19.8)5.3 (3.9 to 6.8)
 P value*0.220.400.760.31
CA86.7 (85.1 to 88.3)71.3 (69.2 to 73.4)52.8 (50.5 to 55.1)20.1 (18.3 to 22.0)
 Boys84.7 (82.3 to 87.1)67.8 (64.8 to 70.8)49.8 (46.5 to 53.1)20.4 (17.7 to 23.0)
 Girls88.7 (86.6 to 90.7)74.8 (71.9 to 77.6)55.7 (52.4 to 58.9)19.9 (17.3 to 22.5)
 P value*0.01<0.010.010.79
IA69.5 (67.3 to 71.6)42.1 (39.8 to 44.4)20.9 (19.0 to 22.8)3.1 (2.3 to 4.0)
 Boys66.6 (63.5 to 69.7)38.6 (35.4 to 41.8)18.3 (15.8 to 20.9)2.6 (1.6 to 3.7)
 Girls72.3 (69.4 to 75.3)45.6 (42.3 to 48.8) 23.3 (20.6 to 26.1)3.7 (2.4 to 4.9)
 P value*<0.01<0.010.010.22
With lens correction
 No483 (49.4%)243 (43.1%)122 (39.4%)33 (31.4%)
 Yes494 (50.6%)321 (56.9%) 188 (60.6%) 72 (68.6%)
  Single spectacles30521012347
  Bifocal spectacles2416127
  Contact lenses0000
  Progressive spectacles201173
  Unknown145844615
  • CA, corneal astigmatism; IA, internal astigmatism; RA, refractive astigmatism.