Table 1

Multivariable analyses of associations between systemic and ocular factors with overall average and central subfield macular thickness parameters

Overall average macular thicknessCentral subfield macular thickness
βStandardised β95% CIP valuesβStandardised β95% CIP values
Systemic factors
 Age, per decade−4.39−0.33−4.98 to −3.80<0.001−1.72−0.08−2.66 to −0.77<0.001
 Female (vs male)−5.74−0.43−6.59 to −4.89<0.001−14.20−0.66−15.68 to −12.73<0.001
 Malay (vs Chinese)−1.55−0.12−2.59 to −0.500.004−1.25−0.06−2.93 to 0.440.147
 Indian (vs Chinese)−5.67−0.42−6.66 to −4.67<0.001−2.82−0.13−4.42 to −1.210.001
 Hypertension−0.43−0.03−1.27 to 0.400.308−0.13−0.01−1.48 to 1.210.849
 Diabetes mellitus−1.10−0.08−2.07 to −0.130.026−3.13−0.15−4.68 to −1.58<0.001
 Body mass index (kg/m2)−0.02−0.01−0.11 to 0.070.693−0.10−0.02−0.25 to 0.050.179
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)0.440.040.11 to 0.770.010
 HDL (mmol/L)2.170.040.05 to 4.280.045
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.260.01−0.28 to 0.790.343
 Chronic kidney disease−3.21−0.24−5.00 to −1.43<0.001−0.31−0.01−3.19 to 2.570.835
 Current smoker0.190.01−0.95 to 1.340.7420.240.01−1.62 to 2.090.802
Ocular factors
 Axial length (mm)−2.34−0.20−2.70 to −1.98<0.0012.510.141.94 to 3.08<0.001
 Corneal curvature (mm)−1.79−0.03−3.27 to −0.310.018−6.51−0.08−8.84 to −4.17<0.001
 Intraocular pressure (mm Hg)0.000.00−0.10 to 0.100.972−0.030.00−0.18 to 0.130.751
 Presence of any cataract−0.94−0.07−1.60 to −0.280.005−0.82−0.04−1.84 to 0.190.113
 Signal strength−0.94−0.07−1.12 to −0.76<0.001−1.30−0.06−1.57 to −1.03<0.001
  • β denotes the change in macular thickness parameters (in µm), per unit change in corresponding factors.

  • ‘–’ denotes the factor which was not included in the multivariable model in the corresponding macular thickness parameter.

  • HDL, high-density lipoprotein.