Table 3

Association between refraction status change and following time by groups

β95% CIP value
Behaviour
 Near work distance≧30 cm (ref: <30 cm) 0.27 0.20 to 0.34 <0.001
 Continuous near work≦30 min (ref: >30 min) 0.13 0.06 to 0.21 <0.001
 More outdoor activity in recess (ref: less outdoor) 0.17 0.08 to 0.26 <0.001
Time (ref=T1)
 T20.23 −0.24 to −0.21 <0.001
 T30.42 −0.44 to −0.41<0.001
 T40.62 −0.63 to −0.60<0.001
 T50.81 −0.83 to −0.79<0.001
  • Linear regression using generalised estimating equations.

  • Association between refraction status change and following time by different behaviour: in linear regression using generalised estimating equations, the standardised beta showed near work distance ≧ 30 cm had the highest association, followed by more outdoor activity in recess and continuous near work ≦ 30 min. The impacts of two latter behaviours were similar.

  • *Model adjusted for sex, paternal high myopia, maternal high myopia and myopia treatment.