Table 1

Baseline characteristics of included participants

Overall(N=1547)Malay
(n=525)
Indian
(n=458)
Chinese
(n=564)
P value
Baseline demographic and systemic characteristics
Age, years58.9 (9.1)59.5 (9.9)57.0 (8.4)60.0 (8.7)<0.001
Gender, female799 (51.7)288 (54.9)235 (51.3)276 (48.9)0.15
Hypertension, yes1004 (65.0)393 (75.1)267 (58.4)344 (61.0)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus, yes434 (28.1)187 (35.6)155 (33.8)92 (16.3)<0.001
BMI, kg/m225.4 (4.7)26.8 (4.9)26.2 (4.8)23.5 (3.7)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.5 (1.1)5.6 (1.1)5.2 (1.0)5.5 (1.1)<0.001
Chronic kidney disease, yes169 (11.5)107 (21.4)32 (7.3)30 (5.6)<0.001
Current smokers, yes245 (15.9)90 (17.2)69 (15.1)86 (15.3)0.59
Educational level
 ≤Primary school1035 (67.0)402 (76.7)287 (62.8)346 (61.4)<0.001
 >Primary school510 (33.0)122 (23.3)170 (37.2)218 (38.7)
Total monthly income (in Singapore dollars)
 <$20001250 (81.9)468 (89.8)357 (79.2)425 (76.7)<0.001
 ≥$2000276 (18.1)53 (10.2)94 (20.8)129 (23.3)
Reading and writing (hours/day)
 0–21308 (85.2)456 (88.0)359 (79.1)493 (87.4)<0.001
 3–5148 (9.6)43 (8.3)55 (12.1)50 (8.9)
 >580 (5.2)19 (3.7)40 (8.8)21 (3.7)
Ocular characteristics
Overall
(N=2708)
Malay
(n=904)
Indian
(n=828)
Chinese
(n=976)
Axial length, mm23.6 (1.2)23.5 (1.0)23.3 (0.9)23.9 (1.4)<0.001
Spherical equivalent, dioptre−0.02 (2.09)0.08 (1.79)0.36 (1.70)−0.45 (2.54)<0.001
Corneal curvature, mm7.64 (0.26)7.64 (0.25)7.60 (0.26)7.66 (0.26)0.001
Intraocular pressure, mm Hg15.2 (3.1)15.3 (3.3)15.9 (2.7)14.4 (3.1)<0.001
Presence of any cataract, yes889 (33.9)371 (41.7)215 (27.2)303 (32.0)<0.001
  • Data are presented in number (percentage) for categorical variables, whereas continuous variables are presented in mean (SD).

  • P values across the three ethnic groups were obtained using analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables.

  • BMI, body mass index.