Table 3

Baseline factors associated with near addition power change over 6 years

Factorsβ95% CIP value
Age (per decade)−0.12(−0.14 to −0.09)<0.001
Age group (years)
 40–49Reference
 50–59−0.05(−0.11 to 0.02)0.15
 60–69−0.19(−0.26 to −0.12)<0.001
 ≥70−0.31(−0.38 to −0.23)<0.001
P trend<0.001
Female (vs male)−0.02(−0.06 to 0.02)0.30
Ethnicity
 ChineseReference
 Malay0.21(0.16 to 0.26)<0.001
 Indian0.02(−0.03 to 0.08)0.38
BMI categories, kg/m2
 Normal (18.5≤BMI<25)Reference
 Underweight (BMI <18.5)0.05(−0.05 to 0.14)0.34
 Overweight (25≤BMI<30)0.02(−0.03 to 0.07)0.39
 Obese (BMI ≥30)0.03(−0.04 to 0.09)0.43
Hypertension, yes−0.01(−0.06 to 0.04)0.60
Reading and writing, hours/day
 0–2Reference
 3–5−0.04(−0.11 to 0.03)0.22
 >50.13(0.04 to 0.23)0.007
Presence of any cataract, yes0.00(−0.01 to 0.02)0.55
Refractive status*
 MyopiaReference
 Emmetropia−0.01(−0.03 to 0.02)0.68
 Hyperopia0.01(−0.03 to 0.04)0.66
Axial length†, mm0.00(−0.02 to 0.02)0.91
  • Multivariable linear regression adjusted for baseline age, gender, ethnicity, BMI categories, presence of hypertension, daily hours spent reading and writing, presence of cataract, and refractive status.

  • β represents change in presbyopia progression (in dioptre) per unit increase in the respective exposures.

  • *Emmetropia defined as −0.50 D≤SE≤+0.50 D; myopia defined as SE <−0.50 D; hyperopia defined as SE >0.50 D.

  • †Axial length was evaluated in a separate multivariable model without refractive error as covariate due to collinearity between axial length and refractive error.

  • BMI, body mass index; D, dioptre.