Table 2

HRs and 95% CIs of incident retinal photocoagulation by quintiles of groups of food consumption in adjusted models

FactorsModel 1*Model 2†Model 3‡
HR (95% CI)P for trendHR (95% CI)P for trendHR (95% CI)P for trend
Red meat0.001<0.0010.002
 Q2 vs Q11.05 (0.77 to 1.43)0.98 (0.71 to 1.34)1.16 (0.79 to 1.73)
 Q3 vs Q10.62 (0.44 to 0.88)0.58 (0.41 to 0.82)0.71 (0.47 to 1.07)
 Q4 vs Q10.66 (0.50 to 0.89)0.60 (0.45 to 0.80)0.70 (0.49 to 1.02)
Poultry meat0.0050.0010.19
 Q2 vs Q10.75 (0.53 to 1.07)0.67 (0.47 to 0.96)0.78 (0.55 to 1.10)
 Q3 vs Q10.75 (0.55 to 1.02)0.67 (0.49 to 0.92)0.78 (0.52 to 1.16)
 Q4 vs Q10.61 (0.44 to 0.83)0.56 (0.41 to 0.77)0.67 (0.45 to 1.00)
Processed meat0.740.960.21
 Q2 vs Q11.12 (0.82 to 1.53)1.10 (0.81 to 1.51)1.21 (0.87 to 1.69)
 Q3 vs Q10.92 (0.64 to 1.33)0.88 (0.61 to 1.28)0.99 (0.67 to 1.47)
 Q4 vs Q11.10 (0.78 to 1.57)1.06 (0.74 to 1.50)1.33 (0.91 to 1.93)
Fish/seafood0.080.080.22
 Q2 vs Q10.77 (0.55 to 1.10)0.78 (0.55 to 1.10)0.81 (0.56 to 1.17)
 Q3 vs Q10.83 (0.58 to 1.20)0.84 (0.58 to 1.20)0.89 (0.61 to 1.30)
 Q4 vs Q10.63 (0.43 to 0.94)0.64 (0.43 to 0.95)0.71 (0.47 to 1.08)
Cheese0.0090.0040.007
 Q2 vs Q10.74 (0.53 to 1.03)0.73 (0.52 to 1.02)0.70 (0.49 to 0.99)
 Q3 vs Q10.77 (0.52 to 1.14)0.76 (0.51 to 1.12)0.75 (0.50 to 1.12)
 Q4 vs Q10.61 (0.43 to 0.86)0.58 (0.41 to 0.82)0.58 (0.41 to 0.83)
Milk0.420.780.74
Drinking milk vs do not drink any milk1.30 (0.71 to 2.38)1.17 (0.64 to 2.14)1.14 (0.62 to 2.14)
Drinking soy milk vs do not drink any milk1.12 (0.62 to 2.00)1.05 (0.59 to 1.88)1.01 (0.55 to 1.85)
Whole-meal bread0.070.040.04
 Q2 vs Q10.73 (0.53 to 1.01)0.76 (0.55 to 1.05)0.70 (0.50 to 0.98)
 Q3 vs Q10.81 (0.60 to 1.09)0.79 (0.59 to 1.07)0.78 (0.57 to 1.07)
 Q4 vs Q10.69 (0.50 to 0.95)0.68 (0.49 to 0.93)0.64 (0.46 to 0.89)
Breakfast cereal0.500.380.42
 Q2 vs Q11.15 (0.83 to 1.61)1.12 (0.80 to 1.57)1.17 (0.83 to 1.66)
 Q3 vs Q11.30 (0.91 to 1.84)1.31 (0.92 to 1.87)1.36 (0.92 to 1.87)
 Q4 vs Q10.94 (0.68 to 1.29)0.91 (0.66 to 1.25)0.52 (0.68 to 1.32)
Fresh fruit0.860.920.60
 Q2 vs Q11.24 (0.78 to 1.98)1.24 (0.77 to 1.99)1.15 (0.71 to 1.87)
 Q3 vs Q11.13 (0.71 to 1.81)1.14 (0.71 to 1.83)1.13 (0.69 to 1.84)
 Q4 vs Q11.20 (0.74 to 1.94)1.19 (0.73 to 1.93)1.18 (0.71 to 1.95)
Fruit juice (yes vs no)1.09 (0.87 to 1.37)0.431.11 (0.88 to 1.40)0.311.04 (0.82 to 1.32)0.53
Vegetables0.840.760.66
 Q2 vs Q11.12 (0.75 to 1.66)1.14 (0.77 to 1.71)1.19 (0.79 to 1.79)
 Q3 vs Q11.21 (0.82 to 1.78)1.23 (0.84 to 1.82)1.35 (0.91 to 2.02)
 Q4 vs Q10.98 (0.66 to 1.46)0.98 (0.66 to 1.46)1.09 (0.72 to 1.65)
  • The quartiles of diet consumption for each food group were as follows:

  • Red meat: Q1: 0; Q2: 1, 2; Q3: 3; Q4: ≥4. Poultry, processed meat and fish/seafood: Q1: 0; Q2: 1; Q3: 2; Q4: ≥3. Cheese: Q1: 0; Q2: 1; Q3: 2, 3; Q4: ≥4. Whole-meal bread: Q1: 0–3; Q2: 4–9; Q3: 10–14; Q4: ≥15. Breakfast cereal: Q1: 0; Q2: 1–4; Q3: 5, 6; Q4: ≥7. Fruit: Q1: 0; Q2: 1; Q3: 2; Q4: ≥3. Vegetables: Q1: 0, 1; Q2: 2; Q3: 3, 4; Q4: ≥5.

  • *Model 1 was adjusted for age and gender.

  • †Model 2 was adjusted for age, gender, household income, education level, body mass index, history of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, family history of diabetes, diabetes duration, insulin treatment, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity.

  • ‡Model 3 was further adjusted for dietary factors (red meat, poultry, processed meat, fish/seafood, fruit, fruit juice and vegetables) based on model 2.

  • Q, quartile for groups of food.