Table 1

Baseline participant characteristics by quintiles of healthy diet scores based on Australian dietary guidelines

CharacteristicsAll n=8122Q1*Q2Q3Q4Q5P value
n=1116n=1587n=2139n=1973n=1307
Age (years)<0.001
 45–552649 (32.6)418 (37.5)558 (35.2)714 (33.4)591 (30.0)368 (28.2)
 56–655473 (67.4)698 (62.5)1029 (64.8)1425 (66.6)1382 (70.0)939 (71.8)
Female3597 (44.3)288 (25.8)580 (36.5)916 (42.8)1032 (52.3)781 (59.8)<0.001
Household income (AUD/years)†0.002
 <20 0001759 (21.7)266 (23.8)346 (21.8)475 (22.2)411 (20.8)261 (20.0)
 ≥20 000–40 0001344 (16.5)180 (16.1)264 (16.6)339 (15.8)329 (16.7)232 (17.8)
 ≥40 000–70 0001619 (19.9)241 (21.6)309 (19.5)441 (20.6)384 (19.5)244 (18.7)
 ≥70 0001956 (24.1)262 (23.5)405 (25.5)513 (24.0)474 (24.0)302 (23.1)
Education level†0.02
 Low (no qualifications)1096 (13.5)189 (16.9)211 (13.3)275 (12.9)252 (12.8)169 (12.9)
 Medium (certificate/diploma/trade)5289 (65.1)724 (64.9)1034 (65.2)1381 (64.6)1278 (64.8)872 (66.7)
 High (university)1655 (20.4)193 (17.3)321 (20.2)458 (21.4)426 (21.6)257 (19.7)
Body mass index (kg/m2)†0.23
 Underweight and normal weight1092 (13.4)139 (12.5)202 (12.7)296 (13.8)260 (13.2)195 (14.9)
 Overweight2496 (30.7)352 (31.5)483 (30.4)649 (30.3)601 (30.5)411 (31.4)
 Obese4039 (49.7)566 (50.7)795 (50.1)1062 (49.6)1008 (51.1)608 (46.5)
Hypertension4791 (59.0)678 (60.8)937 (59.0)1191 (55.7)1205 (61.1)780 (59.7)0.74
Cardiovascular disease1490 (18.3)239 (21.4)289 (18.2)385 (18.0)342 (17.3)235 (18.0)0.03
Family history of diabetes4257 (52.4)577 (51.7)800 (50.4)1134 (53.0)1037 (52.6)709 (54.2)0.09
Insulin treatment1098 (13.5)134 (12.0)179 (11.3)326 (15.2)276 (14.0)183 (14.0)0.02
Diabetes duration (years)†0.63
 0–53536 (43.5)489 (43.8)684 (43.1)934 (43.7)838 (42.5)591 (45.2)
 ≥5–102020 (24.9)273 (24.5)408 (25.7)529 (24.7)513 (26.0)297 (22.7)
 ≥10–201678 (20.7)217 (19.4)322 (20.3)441 (20.6)413 (20.9)285 (21.8)
 ≥20526 (6.5)76 (6.8)95 (6.0)148 (6.9)121 (6.1)86 (6.6)
Current smoker848 (10.4)249 (22.3)196 (12.4)214 (10.0)125 (6.3)64 (4.9)<0.001
Alcohol drinker4421 (54.4)751 (67.3)935 (58.9)1145 (53.5)989 (50.1)601 (46.0)<0.001
Physical activity (sessions/week)<0.001
 <52031 (25.0)345 (30.9)434 (27.3)570 (26.6)444 (22.5)238 (18.2)
 ≥5–92446 (30.1)325 (29.1)496 (31.3)631 (29.5)588 (29.8)406 (31.1)
 ≥9–141682 (20.7)193 (17.3)315 (19.8)438 (20.5)424 (21.5)312 (23.9)
 ≥141741 (21.4)220 (19.7)294 (18.5)444 (20.8)466 (23.6)317 (24.3)
  • All data presented as n (%).

  • *The quintiles of healthy diet scores were as follows: Q1: 0–2; Q2: 3; Q3: 4; Q4: 5; Q5: 6–7.

  • †Proportion of missing value for household income, education level, body mass index and duration of diabetes were 17.8%, 1.1%, 6.1% and 4.5%, respectively.

  • Q, quintiles of healthy diet scores based on the healthy diet quiz in Australian dietary guidelines.