Table 2

Refractive outcomes obtained with the investigated formulas and the biometric measurements obtained with the optical biometer

Optimised constantPE±SDMedAEMAEPE≤0.25 DPE≤0.50 DPE≤0.75 DPE≤1.00 D
Barrett Universal II1.64−0.045±0.3530.2180.26860.5%85.5%95.5%99.0%
Barrett Universal II (no ACD)1.63−0.058±0.3430.2180.26260.0%88.0%95.5%99.0%
EVO 2.0118.530.000±0.3570.2330.27657.5%83.5%96.5%99.0%
EVO 2.0 (no ACD)118.530.000±0.3480.2250.26757.0%87.0%95.5%98.5%
Haigis−0.6099
0.1705
0.2058
−0.012±0.4020.2400.30655.0%82.0%92.5%98.5%
Hoffer Q5.310.000±0.3880.2290.29555.0%84.0%93.5%99.5%
Holladay 11.520.000±0.3550.2320.27556.5%88.5%95.0%99.0%
Holladay 2AL5.200.000±0.3870.2280.29752.0%83.0%95.5%98.5%
Kane118.51−0.001±0.3480.2140.26558.5%86.5%96.5%99.0%
Næser 21.615
0.94
0.027±0.4090.2560.31351.5%80.0%91.5%99.0%
Pearl-DGS118.500.000±0.3660.2380.28655.0%84.5%95.5%98.5%
RBF 2.0118.41−0.003±0.3560.2150.27257.0%85.0%95.5%99.5%
SRK/T118.490.000±0.3650.2230.28756.5%86.0%95.5%98.0%
T2118.500.000±0.3470.2280.26956.0%88.5%96.0%99.0%
VRF5.290.000±0.3720.2350.28056.0%84.5%95.0%99.5%
  • PE, prediction error; MedAE, median absolute error; MAE, mean absolute error.