Table 2

Frequencies and conditional logistic regression model estimating associations of diseases with keratoconus compared with matched controls of the Achmea Health Database

OR (95% CI)P valuesKeratoconus cases, no. (%)Controls, no. (%)
IMIDs and atopic diseases
Allergic rash3.00 (1.03 to 8.79)0.0455 (0.2)10 (0.1)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis2.89 (1.41 to 5.94)0.00411 (0.5)23 (0.2)
Asthma/BHR2.51 (1.63 to 3.84)2.50×10–530 (1.5)74 (0.6)
Allergic rhinitis2.42 (1.06 to 5.49)0.0358 (0.4)20 (0.2)
Rheumatoid Arthritis2.22 (0.71 to 6.97)0.1734 (0.2)11 (0.1)
Inflammatory skin conditions*2.20 (1.37 to 3.53)0.00124 (1.2)66 (0.5)
Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis1.60 (0.89 to 2.89)0.11614 (0.7)53 (0.3)
Diabetes mellitus1.60 (0.85 to 3.03)0.14912 (0.6)46 (0.4)
Ulcerative colitis1.46 (0.54 to 3.86)0.4635 (0.2)21 (0.2)
Crohn’s Disease0.94 (0.33 to 2.70)0.9424 (0.2)26 (0.2)
Graves’ disease0.92 (0.21 to 4.07)0.9102 (0.1)13 (0.1)
Multiple sclerosis0.63 (0.15 to 2.72)0.5382 (0.1)19 (0.2)
Ankylosing spondylitis0.59 (0.76 to 4.62)0.6171 (0.0)10 (0.1)
Sarcoidosis0.42 (0.06 to 3.16)0.3961 (0.0)15 (0.1)
Other diseases
Obstructive sleep apnoea2.33 (1.12 to 4.83)0.02310 (0.5)26 (0.2)
  • Univariate analysis with adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status and urbanisation status. An uncorrected analysis of disease associations did not materially differ from presented outcomes above (data not shown). Bold values represent statistically significant outcomes.

  • *Inflammatory skin conditions include contact dermatitis, hives/urticaria and other non-specified inflammatory dermatoses.

  • BHR, bronchial hyperresponsiveness; IMIDs, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.