Table 4

Association of reading and writing, screen time, total near work and outdoor time with myopia incidence, changes of spherical equivalent and axial length

 Myopia incidence* Changes of spherical equivalent (D) Changes of axial length (mm) Univariate Multiple regression Univariate Multiple regression Univariate Multiple regression OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) P values P values P values P values P values P values Reading and writing time 1.06(0.90 to 1.25) 1.09(0.92 to 1.29) −0.03(−0.06 to 0.00) −0.04(−0.07 to 0.01) 0.03(0.01 to 0.05) 0.03(0.01 to 0.05) 0.51 0.35 0.03* 0.02* 0.01* 0.01* Screen time 0.98(0.93 to 1.04) 0.98(0.93 to 1.04) 0(−0.01 to 0.01) −0.01(−0.02 to 0.01) 0(−0.01 to 0.01) 0(−0.01 to 0.01) 0.59 0.57 0.59 0.40 0.73 0.85 Total near work time 0.99(0.94 to 1.05) 1.00(0.94 to 1.06) −0.01(−0.02 to 0.01) −0.01(−0.02 to 0.00) 0(−0.01 to 0.01) 0(−0.01 to 0.01) 0.79 0.87 0.29 0.15 0.53 0.5 Outdoor time 0.98(0.74 to 1.31) 1.06(0.79 to 1.41) 0.02(−0.03 to 0.07) 0.02(−0.03 to 0.07) 0.01(−0.03 to 0.04) 0.01(−0.03 to 0.05) 0.90 0.71 0.54 0.50 0.66 0.64
• Statistical values for reading and writing time, screen time and total near work time were generated from separate multiple regression models due to correlation between them, which adjusted for age, gender, baseline SER (for myopia incidence and changes of SER), baseline AL (only for changes of AL), height (only for change of AL), parental myopia and outdoor time. For outdoor time, the model was adjusted for age, gender, baseline SER (only for changes of SER), baseline AL (only for changes of AL), height (only for changes of AL), parental myopia and total near work time.

• *To determine the association of lifestyle with myopia incidence, only participants without myopia at baseline were included in the models.

• AL, axial length; SER, spherical equivalent refraction.